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Investigational

Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride  Audio icon

Other Names: Avelox, moxifloxacin HCl
Drug Class: Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections
Chemical Image:
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moxifloxacin hydrochloride
moxifloxacin hydrochloride
Molecular Weight: 437.897

Injection (solution), tablet (film coated)

Patent Version Content

Several FDA-approved drug labels may be available for moxifloxacin hydrochloride. AIDSinfo provides the following drug label solely as an example of the labels available for moxifloxacin hydrochloride. Inclusion or absence of a drug label on the AIDSinfo site does not imply endorsement or lack thereof by AIDSinfo. Search Drugs@FDA to access more information on moxifloxacin hydrochloride, including additional drug labels and any generic equivalents.

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use AVELOX safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for AVELOX.
AVELOX (moxifloxacin) hydrochloride Tablet, film-coated
AVELOX (moxifloxacin) hydrochloride Injection, solution for IV use
Initial U.S. Approval: 1999


To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AVELOX and other antibacterial drugs, AVELOX should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.

WARNING: TENDON EFFECTS and MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX®, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid AVELOX in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

RECENT MAJOR CHANGES

 
Warnings and Precautions (5.10) 11/14

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

AVELOX is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial indicated for treating infections in adults ≥ 18 years of age caused by designated, susceptible bacteria. (1, 12.4)

Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (1.1)
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (1.2)
Community Acquired Pneumonia (1.3)
Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Uncomplicated (1.4) and Complicated (1.5)
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (1.6)

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Type of Infection

Dose
Every 24 hours

Duration
(days)

Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (1.1)

400 mg

10

Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (1.2)

400 mg

5

Community Acquired Pneumonia (1.3)

400 mg

7–14

Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (SSSI) (1.4)

400 mg

7

Complicated SSSI (1.5)

400 mg

7–21

Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (1.6)

400 mg

5–14

No dosage adjustment in patients with renal or hepatic impairment. (8.6, 8.7)
AVELOX Tablets: Administer 4 hours before or 8 hours after antacids, sucralfate, multivitamins and other products with multivalent cations. (2.2)
AVELOX IV: Slow IV infusion over 60 minutes. Avoid rapid or bolus IV. (2.3)
Do not mix with other medications in IV bag or in IV line (2.3)

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

AVELOX Tablets 400 mg moxifloxacin hydrochloride
AVELOX IV 250 mL flexibag containing 400 mg moxifloxacin hydrochloride in sodium chloride injection (3.2)

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Known hypersensitivity to AVELOX or other quinolones (4, 5.4)


WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroids, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Discontinue if pain or inflammation in a tendon occurs. (5.1, 8.5)
Prolongation of the QT interval and isolated cases of torsade de pointes has been reported. Avoid use in patients with known prolongation, hypokalemia, and with drugs that prolong the QT interval. (5.3, 7.5, 8.5). Use caution in patients with proarrhythmic conditions such as clinically significant bradycardia or acute myocardial ischemia. (5.3)
Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, may occur after first or subsequent doses. Discontinue drug use at first sign of skin rash, jaundice or any other sign of hypersensitivity. (5.4, 5.5)
Central nervous system (CNS) events including dizziness, confusion, hallucination, depression, and rarely suicidal thoughts or acts may occur after first dose. Use caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold. (5.6)
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: Evaluate if diarrhea occurs. (5.7)
Peripheral neuropathy: Discontinue if symptoms occur. (5.8)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Most common reactions (≥3%) were nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness (6.2)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-888-842-2937 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch


DRUG INTERACTIONS

Interacting Drug

Interaction

Antacids, sucralfate, multivitamins, and other products containing multivalent cations

Moxifloxacin absorption is decreased. Administer AVELOX Tablet at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after these products. (2.2, 7.1, 12.3, 17.2)

Warfarin

Anticoagulant effect of warfarin may be enhanced. Monitor prothrombin time/INR, watch for bleeding. (6.4, 7.2, 12.3)

Class IA and Class III antiarrhythmics:

Proarrhythmic effect may be enhanced. Avoid concomitant use. (5.3, 7.5)

Antidiabetic Agents

Carefully monitor blood glucose (5.10, 7.3)


USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy: Based on animal data may cause fetal harm (8.1)
Geriatrics: Increased risk for severe tendon disorders further increased by concomitant corticosteroid therapy and increased risk of prolongation of the QT interval. (5.1, 5.3, 8.5)


See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide

Revised: 11/2014

FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION

WARNING: TENDON EFFECTS and MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX®, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid AVELOX in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AVELOX® and other antibacterial drugs, AVELOX should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

AVELOX Tablets and IV are indicated for the treatment of adults (≥ 18 years of age) with infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Use In Specific Populations (8.5)].

Culture and Susceptibility Testing

Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to moxifloxacin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]. Therapy with AVELOX may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be continued.

1.1 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis

AVELOX is indicated for the treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].

1.2 Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis

AVELOX is indicated for the treatment of Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella  pneumoniae, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

1.3 Community Acquired Pneumonia

AVELOX is indicated for the treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant isolates*), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

* MDRSP, Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae includes isolates previously known as PRSP (Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae), and are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] ≥ 2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (for example, cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

1.4 Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

AVELOX is indicated for the treatment of Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes [see Clinical Studies (14.5)].

1.5 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

AVELOX is indicated for the treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Enterobacter cloacae  [see Clinical Studies (14.6)].

1.6 Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

AVELOX is indicated for the treatment of Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections including polymicrobial infections such as abscess caused by Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, or Peptostreptococcus species [see Clinical Studies (14.7)].

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage in Adult Patients

The dose of AVELOX is 400 mg (orally or as an intravenous infusion) once every 24 hours. The duration of therapy depends on the type of infection as described in Table 1.

Table 1 Dosage and Duration of Therapy in Adult Patients
*
Due to the designated pathogens [see Indications and Usage (1), for IV use, see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Sequential therapy (intravenous to oral) may be instituted at the discretion of the physician

Type of Infection*

Dose
Every 24 hours

Duration
(days)

Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (1.1)

400 mg

10

Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (1.2)

400 mg

5

Community Acquired Pneumonia

400 mg

7–14

Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (SSSI ) (1.4)

400 mg

7

Complicated SSSI (1.5)

400 mg

7–21

Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (1.6)

400 mg

5–14

Intravenous formulation is indicated when it offers a route of administration advantageous to the patient (for example, patient cannot tolerate an oral dosage form). When switching from intravenous to oral formulation, no dosage adjustment is necessary. Patients whose therapy is started with AVELOX IV may be switched to AVELOX Tablets when clinically indicated at the discretion of the physician.

2.2 Drug Interactions with Multivalent Cations

Oral doses of AVELOX should be administered at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after products containing magnesium, aluminum, iron or zinc, including antacids, sucralfate, multivitamins and VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.3 Administration Instructions

AVELOX Film-Coated Tablets

AVELOX Tablets can be taken with or without food, drink fluids liberally.

AVELOX IV Solution for Infusion

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

AVELOX IV should be administered by INTRAVENOUS infusion only. It is not intended for intra-arterial, intramuscular, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration.

AVELOX IV should be administered by intravenous infusion over a period of 60 minutes by direct infusion or through a Y-type intravenous infusion set which may already be in place. Caution: rapid or bolus intravenous infusion must be avoided.

Because only limited data are available on the compatibility of AVELOX intravenous injection with other intravenous substances, additives or other medications should not be added to AVELOX IV or infused simultaneously through the same intravenous line. If the same intravenous line or a Y-type line is used for sequential infusion of other drugs, or if the “piggyback” method of administration is used, the line should be flushed before and after infusion of AVELOX IV with an infusion solution compatible with AVELOX IV as well as with other drug(s) administered via this common line.

AVELOX IV is compatible with the following intravenous solutions at ratios from 1:10 to 10:1

0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP

Sterile Water for Injection, USP

1M Sodium Chloride Injection

10% Dextrose for Injection, USP

5% Dextrose Injection, USP

Lactated Ringer’s for Injection

2.4 Preparation for Administration of AVELOX IV

To prepare AVELOX IV injection premix in flexible containers:

1.
Close flow control clamp of administration set.
2.
Remove cover from port at bottom of container.
3.
Insert piercing pin from an appropriate transfer set (for example, one that does not require excessive force, such as ISO compatible administration set) into port with a gentle twisting motion until pin is firmly seated.

NOTE: Refer to complete directions that have been provided with the administration set.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

3.1 AVELOX Tablets

Containing moxifloxacin hydrochloride (equivalent to 400 mg moxifloxacin)
Oblong, dull red film-coated tablets
Imprinted with BAYER on one side and M400 on the other

3.2 AVELOX IV

Containing 400 mg moxifloxacin in 0.8% saline (moxifloxacin hydrochloride in sodium chloride injection) with pH ranging from 4.1 to 4.6.
Ready-to-use 250 mL latex-free flexibags. No further dilution is necessary
Sterile, preservative free, 0.8% sodium chloride aqueous solution of moxifloxacin hydrochloride

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

AVELOX is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to moxifloxacin or any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. AVELOX should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug. [see Adverse Reactions (6.4) and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

5.2 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid AVELOX in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.3 QT Prolongation

AVELOX has been shown to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in some patients. Following oral dosing with 400 mg of AVELOX the mean (± SD) change in QTc from the pre-dose value at the time of maximum drug concentration was 6 msec (± 26) (n = 787). Following a course of daily intravenous dosing (400 mg; 1 hour infusion each day) the mean change in QTc from the Day 1 pre-dose value was 10 msec (±22) on Day 1 (n=667) and 7 msec (± 24) on Day 3 (n = 667).

The drug should be avoided in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, patients with uncorrected hypokalemia and patients receiving Class IA (for example, quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (for example, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents, due to the lack of clinical experience with the drug in these patient populations.

Pharmacokinetic studies between AVELOX and other drugs that prolong the QT interval such as cisapride, erythromycin, antipsychotics, and tricyclic antidepressants have not been performed. An additive effect of AVELOX and these drugs cannot be excluded; therefore caution should be exercised when AVELOX is given concurrently with these drugs. In premarketing clinical trials, the rate of cardiovascular adverse events was similar in 798 AVELOX and 702 comparator treated patients who received concomitant therapy with drugs known to prolong the QTc interval.

AVELOX should be used with caution in patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions, such as clinically significant bradycardia, acute myocardial ischemia. The magnitude of QT prolongation may increase with increasing concentrations of the drug or increasing rates of infusion of the intravenous formulation. Therefore the recommended dose or infusion rate should not be exceeded. QT prolongation may lead to an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias including torsade de pointes. No excess in cardiovascular morbidity or mortality attributable to QTc prolongation occurred with AVELOX treatment in over 15,500 patients in controlled clinical studies, including 759 patients who were hypokalemic at the start of treatment, and there was no increase in mortality in over 18,000 AVELOX tablet treated patients in a postmarketing observational study in which ECGs were not performed. Elderly patients using IV AVELOX may be more susceptible to drug-associated QT prolongation [see Use In Specific Populations, (8.5)]. In addition, AVELOX should be used with caution in patients with mild, moderate, or severe liver cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.4 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious anaphylactic reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving quinolone therapy, including AVELOX. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling, pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. AVELOX should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, may be administered as indicated. [See Adverse Reactions (6) and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

5.5 Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions

Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including AVELOX. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:

Fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (for example, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome)
Vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness
Allergic pneumonitis
Interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure
Hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure
Anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities

The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted [see Patient Counseling Information (17) and Adverse Reactions (6.4)].

5.6 Central Nervous System Effects

Fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX, may cause central nervous system (CNS) events, including: nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares or paranoia [see Adverse Reactions (6.2, 6.4)].

Convulsions and increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri) have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events including: dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving AVELOX, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. As with all fluoroquinolones, AVELOX should be used with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders (for example, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold. [See Drug Interactions (7.4) Adverse Reactions (6.2, 6.4) and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

5.7 Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including AVELOX, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.8 Peripheral Neuropathy

Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones including AVELOX. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of AVELOX and may be irreversible. AVELOX should be discontinued immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensation including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, and vibratory sensation [see Adverse Reactions (6.2, 6.4) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

5.9 Arthropathic Effects in Animals

The oral administration of AVELOX caused lameness in immature dogs. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of these dogs revealed permanent lesions of the cartilage. Related quinolone-class drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. [See Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology (13.2).]

5.10 Blood Glucose Disturbances

 As with all fluoroquinolones, disturbances in blood glucose, including both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia have been reported with AVELOX. In AVELOX-treated patients, dysglycemia occurred predominantly in elderly diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (for example, sulfonylurea) or with insulin. In diabetic patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, AVELOX should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated immediately. [See Adverse Reactions (6.2) Patient Counseling Information (17).]

5.11 Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity

Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (for example, burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolone antibiotics after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if phototoxicity occurs. [See Adverse Reactions (6.4) and Pharmacokinetics (12.3).]

5.12 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing AVELOX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Serious and Otherwise Important Adverse Reactions

The following serious and otherwise important adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in the warnings and precautions section of the label:

Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
QT Prolongation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Central Nervous System Effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Peripheral Neuropathy that may be irreversible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Blood Glucose Disturbances [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]

6.2 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data described below reflect exposure to AVELOX in 14981 patients in 71 active controlled Phase II- IV clinical trials in different indications [see Indications and Usage (1)]. The population studied had a mean age of 50 years (approximately 73% of the population was <65 years of age), 50% were male, 63% were Caucasian, 12% were Asian and 9% were Black. Patients received AVELOX 400 mg once daily PO, IV, or sequentially (IV followed by PO). Treatment duration was usually 6-10 days, and the mean number of days on therapy was 9 days.

Discontinuation of AVELOX due to adverse events occurred in 5.0% of patients overall, 4.1% of patients treated with 400 mg PO, 3.9% with 400 mg IV and 8.2% with sequential therapy 400 mg PO/IV. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation with the 400 mg PO doses were nausea (0.8%), diarrhea (0.5%), dizziness (0.5%), and vomiting (0.4%). The most common adverse event leading to discontinuation with the 400 mg IV dose was rash (0.5%). The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation with the 400 mg IV/PO sequential dose were diarrhea (0.5%), pyrexia (0.4%).

Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of AVELOX-treated patients and less common adverse reactions, occurring in 0.1 to <1% of AVELOX-treated patients, are shown in Tables 2 and Table 3, respectively. The most common adverse drug reactions (≥3%) are nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness.

Table 2 Common (≥ 1.0%) Adverse Reactions Reported in Active-Controlled Clinical Trials with AVELOX
*
MedDRA Version 12.0

System Organ Class

Adverse Reactions*

%

(N=14,981)

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Anemia

1.1

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Nausea

6.9

Diarrhea

6.0

Vomiting

2.4

Constipation

1.9

Abdominal pain

1.5

Abdominal pain upper

1.1

Dyspepsia

1.0

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Pyrexia

1.1

Investigations

Alanine aminotransferase increased

1.1

Metabolism and Nutritional Disorder

Hypokalemia

1

Nervous System Disorders

Headache

4.2

Dizziness

3.0

Psychiatric Disorders

Insomnia

1.9

Table 3 Less Common (0.1 to <1.0%) Adverse Reactions Reported in Active-Controlled Clinical Trials with AVELOX (N=14,981)
System Organ Class Adverse Reactionsa

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Thrombocythemia

Eosinophilia

Neutropenia

Thrombocytopenia

Leukopenia

Leukocytosis

Cardiac Disorders

Atrial fibrillation

Palpitations

Tachycardia

Cardiac failure congestive

Angina pectoris

Cardiac failure

Cardiac arrest

Bradycardia

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders

Vertigo

Tinnitus

Eye Disorders

Vision blurred

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Dry mouth

Abdominal discomfort

Flatulence

Abdominal distention

Gastritis

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Fatigue

Chest pain

Asthenia

Edema peripheral

Pain

Malaise

Infusion site extravasation

Edema

Chills

Chest discomfort

Facial pain

Hepatobiliary disorders

Hepatic function abnormal

Infections and Infestations

Vulvovaginal candidiasis

Oral candidiasis

Vulvovaginal mycotic infection

Candidiasis

Vaginal infection

Oral fungal infection

Fungal infection

Gastroenteritis

Investigations

Aspartate aminotransferase increased

Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased

Blood alkaline phosphatase increased

Hepatic enzyme increased

Electrocardiogram QT prolonged

Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased

Platelet count increased

Blood amylase increased

Blood glucose increased

Lipase increased

Hemoglobin decreased

Blood creatinine increased

Transaminases increased

White blood cell count increased

Blood urea increased

Liver function test abnormal

Hematocrit decreased

Prothrombin time prolonged

Eosinophil count increased

Activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged

Blood bilirubin increased

Blood triglycerides increased

Blood uric acid increased

Blood pressure increased

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders

Hyperglycemia

Anorexia

Hypoglycemia

Hyperlipidemia

Decreased appetite

Dehydration

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Back pain

Pain in extremity

Arthralgia

Myalgia

Muscle spasms

Musculoskeletal chest pain

Musculoskeletal pain

Nervous System Disorders

Dysgeusia

Somnolence

Tremor

Lethargy

Paresthesia

Tension headache

Hypoesthesia

Syncope

Psychiatric Disorders

Anxiety

Confusional state

Agitation

Depression

Nervousness

Restlessness

Hallucination

Disorientation

Renal and Urinary Disorders

Renal failure

Dysuria

Renal failure acute

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders

Vulvovaginal pruritus

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders

Dyspnea

Asthma

Wheezing

Bronchospasm

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Rash

Pruritus

Hyperhidrosis

Erythema

Urticaria

Dermatitis allergic

Night sweats

Vascular Disorders

Hypertension

Hypotension

Phlebitis

aMedDRA Version 12.0

6.3 Laboratory Changes

Changes in laboratory parameters, without regard to drug relationship, which are not listed above and which occurred in ≥ 2% of patients and at an incidence greater than in controls included: increases in MCH, neutrophils, WBCs, PT ratio, ionized calcium, chloride, albumin, globulin, bilirubin; decreases in hemoglobin, RBCs, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, PT ratio, glucose, pO2, bilirubin, and amylase. It cannot be determined if any of the above laboratory abnormalities were caused by the drug or the underlying condition being treated.

6.4 Postmarketing Experience

Table 4 lists adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of AVELOX. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Table 4 Postmarketing Reports of Adverse Drug Reactions

System/Organ Class

Adverse Reaction

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Agranulocytosis

Pancytopenia

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

Cardiac Disorders

Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (including in very rare cases cardiac arrest and torsade de pointes, and usually in patients with concurrent severe underlying proarrhythmic conditions)

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders

Hearing impairment, including deafness (reversible in majority of cases)

Eye Disorders

Vision loss (especially in the course of CNS reactions, transient in majority of cases)

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Hepatitis (predominantly cholestatic)

Hepatic failure (including fatal cases)

Jaundice

Acute hepatic necrosis

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

Immune System Disorders

Anaphylactic reaction

Anaphylactic shock

Angioedema (including laryngeal edema)

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5)]

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Tendon rupture

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

Nervous System Disorders

Altered coordination

Abnormal gait

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

Myasthenia gravis (exacerbation of)

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Muscle weakness

Peripheral neuropathy (that may be irreversible), polyneuropathy

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

Psychiatric Disorders

Psychotic reaction (very rarely culminating in self-injurious behavior, such as suicidal ideation/thoughts or suicide attempts [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]

Renal and Urinary Disorders

Renal dysfunction

Interstitial nephritis

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders

Allergic pneumonitis

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Toxic epidermal necrolysis

[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Antacids, Sucralfate, Multivitamins and other products containing Multivalent Cations

Quinolones form chelates with alkaline earth and transition metal cations. Oral administration of quinolones with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium, with sucralfate, with metal cations such as iron, or with multivitamins containing iron or zinc, or with formulations containing divalent and trivalent cations such as VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution, may substantially interfere with the absorption of quinolones, resulting in systemic concentrations considerably lower than desired. Therefore, AVELOX should be taken at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after these agents. [See Dosage and Administration (2.2), Pharmacokinetics (12.3), and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

7.2 Warfarin

Quinolones, including AVELOX, have been reported to enhance the anticoagulant effects of warfarin or its derivatives in the patient population. In addition, infectious disease and its accompanying inflammatory process, age, and general status of the patient are risk factors for increased anticoagulant activity. Therefore the prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if a quinolone is administered concomitantly with warfarin or its derivatives. [See Adverse Reactions (6.2, 6.3), Pharmacokinetics (12.3), and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

7.3 Antidiabetic Agents

Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, AVELOX should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated immediately. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.10); Adverse Reactions (6.2), Patient Counseling Information (17).]

7.4 Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Although not observed with AVELOX in preclinical and clinical trials, the concomitant administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a quinolone may increase the risks of CNS stimulation and convulsions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

7.5 Drugs that Prolong QT

There is limited information available on the potential for a pharmacodynamic interaction in humans between AVELOX and other drugs that prolong the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram. Sotalol, a Class III antiarrhythmic, has been shown to further increase the QTc interval when combined with high doses of intravenous (IV) AVELOX in dogs. Therefore, AVELOX should be avoided with Class IA and Class III antiarrhythmics. [See Warnings and Precautions, (5.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2), and Patient Counseling Information (17).]

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C.

Because no adequate or well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women, AVELOX should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Moxifloxacin was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis at oral doses as high as 500 mg/kg/day or 0.24 times the maximum recommended human dose based on systemic exposure (AUC), but decreased fetal body weights and slightly delayed fetal skeletal development (indicative of fetotoxicity) were observed. Intravenous administration of 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) to pregnant rats resulted in maternal toxicity and a marginal effect on fetal and placental weights and the appearance of the placenta. There was no evidence of teratogenicity at intravenous doses as high as 80 mg/kg/day. Intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately equal to the maximum recommended human oral dose based upon systemic exposure) to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis resulted in decreased fetal body weights and delayed fetal skeletal ossification. When rib and vertebral malformations were combined, there was an increased fetal and litter incidence of these effects. Signs of maternal toxicity in rabbits at this dose included mortality, abortions, marked reduction of food consumption, decreased water intake, body weight loss and hypoactivity. There was no evidence of teratogenicity when pregnant cynomolgus monkeys were given oral doses as high as 100 mg/kg/day (2.5 times the maximum recommended human dose based upon systemic exposure). An increased incidence of smaller fetuses was observed at 100 mg/kg/day. In an oral pre- and postnatal development study conducted in rats, effects observed at 500 mg/kg/day included slight increases in duration of pregnancy and prenatal loss, reduced pup birth weight and decreased neonatal survival. Treatment-related maternal mortality occurred during gestation at 500 mg/kg/day in this study.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Moxifloxacin is excreted in the breast milk of rats. Moxifloxacin may also be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in infants who are nursing from mothers taking AVELOX, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients and adolescents less than 18 years of age have not been established. AVELOX causes arthropathy in juvenile animals [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.9), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as AVELOX. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing AVELOX to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential side effect and advised to discontinue AVELOX and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Adverse Reactions (6.4)].

In controlled multiple-dose clinical trials, 23% of patients receiving oral AVELOX were greater than or equal to 65 years of age and 9% were greater than or equal to 75 years of age. The clinical trial data demonstrate that there is no difference in the safety and efficacy of oral AVELOX in patients aged 65 or older compared to younger adults.

In trials of intravenous use, 42% of AVELOX patients were greater than or equal to 65 years of age, and 23% were greater than or equal to 75 years of age. The clinical trial data demonstrate that the safety of intravenous AVELOX in patients aged 65 or older was similar to that of comparator-treated patients. In general, elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects of the QT interval. Therefore, AVELOX should be avoided in patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (for example, class IA or class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for torsade de pointes (for example, known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia). [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7.5), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]

8.6 Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetic parameters of moxifloxacin are not significantly altered in mild, moderate, severe, or end-stage renal disease. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment, including those patients requiring hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) [see Dosage and Administration (2), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustment is recommended for mild, moderate, or severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Classes A, B, or C). However, due to metabolic disturbances associated with hepatic insufficiency, which may lead to QT prolongation, AVELOX should be used with caution in these patients [see Warnings and Precaution (5.3), and Clinical Pharmacology, (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Single oral overdoses up to 2.8 g were not associated with any serious adverse events. In the event of acute overdose, the stomach should be emptied and adequate hydration maintained. ECG monitoring is recommended due to the possibility of QT interval prolongation. The patient should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment. The administration of activated charcoal as soon as possible after oral overdose may prevent excessive increase of systemic moxifloxacin exposure. About 3% and 9% of the dose of moxifloxacin, as well as about 2% and 4.5% of its glucuronide metabolite are removed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, respectively.

Single oral AVELOX doses of 2000, 500, and 1500 mg/kg were lethal to rats, mice, and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. The minimum lethal intravenous dose in mice and rats was 100 mg/kg. Adverse clinical signs included CNS and gastrointestinal effects such as decreased activity, somnolence, tremor, convulsions, vomiting and diarrhea.

11 DESCRIPTION

AVELOX (moxifloxacin) hydrochloride is a synthetic broad spectrum antibacterial agent for oral and intravenous administration. Moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is available as the monohydrochloride salt of 1-cyclopropyl-7-[(S,S)-2,8-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3 quinoline carboxylic acid. It is a slightly yellow to yellow crystalline substance with a molecular weight of 437.9. Its empirical formula is C21H24FN3O4*HCl and its chemical structure is as follows:

Chemical Structure

11.1 AVELOX Tablets

AVELOX Tablets are available as film-coated tablets containing moxifloxacin hydrochloride (equivalent to 400 mg moxifloxacin).
The inactive ingredients are microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and ferric oxide.

11.2 AVELOX IV

AVELOX IV is available in ready-to-use 250 mL latex-free flexibags as a sterile, preservative free, 0.8% sodium chloride aqueous solution of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (containing 400 mg moxifloxacin) with pH ranging from 4.1 to 4.6.
The appearance of the intravenous solution is yellow. The color does not affect, nor is it indicative of, product stability.
The inactive ingredients are sodium chloride, USP, Water for Injection, USP, and may include hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.
AVELOX IV contains approximately 34.2 mEq (787 mg) of sodium in 250 mL.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

AVELOX is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents [see Microbiology (12.4)].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Moxifloxacin, given as an oral tablet, is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability of moxifloxacin is approximately 90 percent. Co-administration with a high fat meal (that is, 500 calories from fat) does not affect the absorption of moxifloxacin.

Consumption of 1 cup of yogurt with moxifloxacin does not significantly affect the extent or rate of systemic absorption (AUC).

Table 5: Mean (± SD) Cmax and AUC values following single and multiple doses of 400 mg moxifloxacin given orally
Cmax
(mg/L)
AUC
(mg•h/L)
Half-life
(hr)
*
Range of means from different studies

Single Dose Oral
Healthy (n = 372)

3.1 ± 1

36.1 ± 9.1

11.5–15.6*

Multiple Dose Oral

Healthy young male/female (n = 15)

4.5 ± 0.5

48 ± 2.7

12.7 ± 1.9

Healthy elderly male (n = 8)

3.8 ± 0.3

51.8 ± 6.7

Healthy elderly female (n = 8)

4.6 ± 0.6

54.6 ± 6.7

Healthy young male (n = 8)

3.6 ± 0.5

48.2 ± 9

Healthy young female (n = 9)

4.2 ± 0.5

49.3 ± 9.5

Table 6 Mean (± SD) Cmax and AUC values following single and multiple doses of 400 mg moxifloxacin given by 1 hour IV infusion
Cmax
(mg/L)
AUC
(mg•h/L)
Half-life
(hr)
*
Range of means from different studies
Expected Cmax (concentration obtained around the time of the end of the infusion)

Single Dose IV

Healthy young male/female (n = 56)

3.9 ± 0.9

39.3 ± 8.6

8.2 - 15.4*

Patients (n = 118)

Male (n = 64)

4.4 ± 3.7

Female (n = 54)

4.5 ± 2

< 65 years (n = 58)

4.6 ± 4.2

≥ 65 years (n = 60)

4.3 ± 1.3

Multiple Dose IV

Healthy young male (n = 8)

4.2 ± 0.8

38 ± 4.7

14.8 ± 2.2

Healthy elderly (n =12; 8 male, 4 female)

6.1 ± 1.3

48.2 ± 0.9

10.1 ± 1.6

Patients (n = 107)

Male (n = 58)

4.2 ± 2.6

Female (n = 49)

4.6 ± 1.5

<65 years (n = 52)

4.1 ± 1.4

≥65 years (n = 55)

4.7 ± 2.7

Plasma concentrations increase proportionately with dose up to the highest dose tested (1200 mg single oral dose). The mean (± SD) elimination half-life from plasma is 12 ± 1.3 hours; steady-state is achieved after at least three days with a 400 mg once daily regimen.

Figure 1 Mean Steady-State Plasma Concentrations of Moxifloxacin Obtained With Once Daily Dosing of 400 mg Either Orally (n=10) or by IV Infusion (n=12)

Figure 1

Distribution

Moxifloxacin is approximately 30-50% bound to serum proteins, independent of drug concentration. The volume of distribution of moxifloxacin ranges from 1.7 to 2.7 L/kg. Moxifloxacin is widely distributed throughout the body, with tissue concentrations often exceeding plasma concentrations. Moxifloxacin has been detected in the saliva, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosa of the sinuses, skin blister fluid, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, and abdominal tissues and fluids following oral or intravenous administration of 400 mg. Moxifloxacin concentrations measured post-dose in various tissues and fluids following a 400 mg oral or IV dose are summarized in Table 7. The rates of elimination of moxifloxacin from tissues generally parallel the elimination from plasma.

Table 7 Moxifloxacin Concentrations (mean ± SD) in Tissues and the Corresponding Plasma Concentrations After a Single 400 mg Oral or Intravenous Dose
Tissue or Fluid N Plasma
Concentration
(mcg/mL)
Tissue or Fluid
Concentration
(mcg/mL or mcg/g)
Tissue
Plasma
Ratio
All moxifloxacin concentrations were measured 3 hours after a single 400 mg dose, except the abdominal tissue and exudate concentrations which were measured at 2 hours post-dose and the sinus concentrations which were measured 3 hours post-dose after 5 days of dosing.
*
N = 5
N = 7
N = 12
§
Reflects only non-protein bound concentrations of drug.

Respiratory

Alveolar Macrophages

5

3.3 ± 0.7

61.8 ± 27.3

21.2 ± 10

Bronchial Mucosa

8

3.3 ± 0.7

5.5 ± 1.3

1.7 ± 0.3

Epithelial Lining Fluid

5

3.3 ± 0.7

24.4 ± 14.7

8.7 ± 6.1

Sinus

Maxillary Sinus Mucosa

4

3.7 ± 1.1*

7.6 ± 1.7

2 ± 0.3

Anterior Ethmoid Mucosa

3

3.7 ± 1.1*

8.8 ± 4.3

2.2 ± 0.6

Nasal Polyps

4

3.7 ± 1.1*

9.8 ± 4.5

2.6 ± 0.6

Skin, Musculoskeletal

Blister Fluid

5

3 ± 0.5

2.6 ± 0.9

0.9 ± 0.2

Subcutaneous Tissue

6

2.3 ± 0.4

0.9 ± 0.3§

0.4 ± 0.6

Skeletal Muscle

6

2.3 ± 0.4

0.9 ± 0.2§

0.4 ± 0.1

Intra-Abdominal

Abdominal tissue

8

2.9 ± 0.5

7.6 ± 2

2.7 ± 0.8

Abdominal exudate

10

2.3 ± 0.5

3.5 ±1.2

1.6 ± 0.7

Abscess fluid

6

2.7 ± 0.7

2.3 ±1.5

0.8±0.4

Metabolism

Approximately 52% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is metabolized via glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. The cytochrome P450 system is not involved in moxifloxacin metabolism, and is not affected by moxifloxacin. The sulfate conjugate (M1) accounts for approximately 38% of the dose, and is eliminated primarily in the feces. Approximately 14% of an oral or intravenous dose is converted to a glucuronide conjugate (M2), which is excreted exclusively in the urine. Peak plasma concentrations of M2 are approximately 40% those of the parent drug, while plasma concentrations of M1 are generally less than 10% those of moxifloxacin.

In vitro studies with cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes indicate that moxifloxacin does not inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP1A2, suggesting that moxifloxacin is unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by these enzymes.

Excretion

Approximately 45% of an oral or intravenous dose of moxifloxacin is excreted as unchanged drug (~20% in urine and ~25% in feces). A total of 96% ± 4% of an oral dose is excreted as either unchanged drug or known metabolites. The mean (± SD) apparent total body clearance and renal clearance are 12 ± 2 L/hr and 2.6 ± 0.5 L/hr, respectively.

Pharmacokinetics in Specific Populations

Geriatric

Following oral administration of 400 mg moxifloxacin for 10 days in 16 elderly (8 male; 8 female) and 17 young (8 male; 9 female) healthy volunteers, there were no age-related changes in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. In 16 healthy male volunteers (8 young; 8 elderly) given a single 200 mg dose of oral moxifloxacin, the extent of systemic exposure (AUC and Cmax) was not statistically different between young and elderly males and elimination half-life was unchanged. No dosage adjustment is necessary based on age. In large phase III studies, the concentrations around the time of the end of the infusion in elderly patients following intravenous infusion of 400 mg were similar to those observed in young patients. [see Use In Specific Populations (8.5).]

Pediatric

The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in pediatric subjects has not been studied [see Use In Specific Populations (8.4)].

Gender

Following oral administration of 400 mg moxifloxacin daily for 10 days to 23 healthy males (19-75 years) and 24 healthy females (19-70 years), the mean AUC and Cmax were 8% and 16% higher, respectively, in females compared to males. There are no significant differences in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when differences in body weight are taken into consideration.

A 400 mg single dose study was conducted in 18 young males and females. The comparison of moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics in this study (9 young females and 9 young males) showed no differences in AUC or Cmax due to gender. Dosage adjustments based on gender are not necessary.

Race

Steady-state moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics in male Japanese subjects were similar to those determined in Caucasians, with a mean Cmax of 4.1 mcg/mL, an AUC24 of 47 mcg•h/mL, and an elimination half-life of 14 hours, following 400 mg p.o. daily.

Renal Insufficiency

The pharmacokinetic parameters of moxifloxacin are not significantly altered in mild, moderate, severe, or end-stage renal disease. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment, including those patients requiring hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

In a single oral dose study of 24 patients with varying degrees of renal function from normal to severely impaired, the mean peak concentrations (Cmax) of moxifloxacin were reduced by 21% and 28% in the patients with moderate (CLCR≥ 30 and ≤ 60 mL/min) and severe (CLCR<30 mL/min) renal impairment, respectively. The mean systemic exposure (AUC) in these patients was increased by 13%. In the moderate and severe renally impaired patients, the mean AUC for the sulfate conjugate (M1) increased by 1.7-fold (ranging up to 2.8-fold) and mean AUC and Cmax for the glucuronide conjugate (M2) increased by 2.8-fold (ranging up to 4.8-fold) and 1.4-fold (ranging up to 2.5-fold), respectively. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6).]

The pharmacokinetics of single dose and multiple dose moxifloxacin were studied in patients with CLCR< 20 mL/min on either hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (8 HD, 8 CAPD). Following a single 400 mg oral dose, the AUC of moxifloxacin in these HD and CAPD patients did not vary significantly from the AUC generally found in healthy volunteers. Cmax values of moxifloxacin were reduced by about 45% and 33% in HD and CAPD patients, respectively, compared to healthy, historical controls. The exposure (AUC) to the sulfate conjugate (M1) increased by 1.4- to 1.5-fold in these patients. The mean AUC of the glucuronide conjugate (M2) increased by a factor of 7.5, whereas the mean Cmax values of the glucuronide conjugate (M2) increased by a factor of 2.5 to 3, compared to healthy subjects. The sulfate and the glucuronide conjugates of moxifloxacin are not microbiologically active, and the clinical implication of increased exposure to these metabolites in patients with renal disease including those undergoing HD and CAPD has not been studied.

Oral administration of 400 mg QD AVELOX for 7 days to patients on HD or CAPD produced mean systemic exposure (AUCss) to moxifloxacin similar to that generally seen in healthy volunteers. Steady-state Cmax values were about 22% lower in HD patients but were comparable between CAPD patients and healthy volunteers. Both HD and CAPD removed only small amounts of moxifloxacin from the body (approximately 9% by HD, and 3% by CAPD). HD and CAPD also removed about 4% and 2% of the glucuronide metabolite (M2), respectively.

Hepatic Insufficiency

No dosage adjustment is recommended for mild, moderate, or severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Classes A, B, or C). However, due to metabolic disturbances associated with hepatic insufficiency, which may lead to QT prolongation, AVELOX should be used with caution in these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

In 400 mg single oral dose studies in 6 patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and 10 patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic insufficiency, moxifloxacin mean systemic exposure (AUC) was 78% and 102%, respectively, of 18 healthy controls and mean peak concentration (Cmax) was 79% and 84% of controls.

The mean AUC of the sulfate conjugate of moxifloxacin (M1) increased by 3.9-fold (ranging up to 5.9-fold) and 5.7-fold (ranging up to 8-fold) in the mild and moderate groups, respectively. The mean Cmax of M1 increased by approximately 3-fold in both groups (ranging up to 4.7- and 3.9-fold). The mean AUC of the glucuronide conjugate of moxifloxacin (M2) increased by 1.5-fold (ranging up to 2.5-fold) in both groups. The mean Cmax of M2 increased by 1.6- and 1.3-fold (ranging up to 2.7- and 2.1-fold), respectively. The clinical significance of increased exposure to the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates has not been studied. In a subset of patients participating in a clinical trial, the plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin and metabolites determined approximately at the moxifloxacin Tmax following the first intravenous or oral AVELOX dose in the Child-Pugh Class C patients (n=10) were similar to those in the Child-Pugh Class A/B patients (n=5), and also similar to those observed in healthy volunteer studies.

Photosensitivity Potential

A study of the skin response to ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) and visible radiation conducted in 32 healthy volunteers (8 per group) demonstrated that AVELOX does not show phototoxicity in comparison to placebo. The minimum erythematous dose (MED) was measured before and after treatment with AVELOX (200 mg or 400 mg once daily), lomefloxacin (400 mg once daily), or placebo. In this study, the MED measured for both doses of AVELOX were not significantly different from placebo, while lomefloxacin significantly lowered the MED.

It is difficult to ascribe relative photosensitivity/phototoxicity among various fluoroquinolones during actual patient use because other factors play a role in determining a subject’s susceptibility to this adverse event such as: a patient’s skin pigmentation, frequency and duration of sun and artificial ultraviolet light (UV) exposure, wearing of sunscreen and protective clothing, the use of other concomitant drugs and the dosage and duration of fluoroquinolone therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11), Adverse Reactions (6.3), and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

Drug-Drug Interactions

The following drug interactions were studied in healthy volunteers or patients.

Antacids and iron significantly reduced bioavailability of moxifloxacin, as observed with other quinolones [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

Calcium, digoxin, itraconazole, morphine, probenecid, ranitidine, theophylline and warfarin did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin. These results and the data from in vitro studies suggest that moxifloxacin is unlikely to significantly alter the metabolic clearance of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP1A2 enzymes.

Moxifloxacin had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol, digoxin, glyburide, itraconazole, oral contraceptives, theophylline, cyclosporine and warfarin [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

Antacids

When moxifloxacin (single 400 mg tablet dose) was administered two hours before, concomitantly, or 4 hours after an aluminum/magnesium-containing antacid (900 mg aluminum hydroxide and 600 mg magnesium hydroxide as a single oral dose) to 12 healthy volunteers there was a 26%, 60% and 23% reduction in the mean AUC of moxifloxacin, respectively. Moxifloxacin should be taken at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after antacids containing magnesium or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc, or VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/ buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Drug Interactions (7.1)].

Atenolol

In a crossover study involving 24 healthy volunteers (12 male; 12 female), the mean atenolol AUC following a single oral dose of 50 mg atenolol with placebo was similar to that observed when atenolol was given concomitantly with a single 400 mg oral dose of moxifloxacin. The mean Cmax of single dose atenolol decreased by about 10% following co-administration with a single dose of moxifloxacin.

Calcium

Twelve healthy volunteers were administered concomitant moxifloxacin (single 400 mg dose) and calcium (single dose of 500 mg Ca++ dietary supplement) followed by an additional two doses of calcium 12 and 24 hours after moxifloxacin administration. Calcium had no significant effect on the mean AUC of moxifloxacin. The mean Cmaxwas slightly reduced and the time to maximum plasma concentration was prolonged when moxifloxacin was given with calcium compared to when moxifloxacin was given alone (2.5 hours versus 0.9 hours). These differences are not considered to be clinically significant.

Digoxin

No significant effect of moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily for two days) on digoxin (0.6 mg as a single dose) AUC was detected in a study involving 12 healthy volunteers. The mean digoxin Cmaxincreased by about 50% during the distribution phase of digoxin. This transient increase in digoxin Cmaxis not viewed to be clinically significant. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. No dosage adjustment for moxifloxacin or digoxin is required when these drugs are administered concomitantly.

Glyburide

In diabetics, glyburide (2.5 mg once daily for two weeks pretreatment and for five days concurrently) mean AUC and Cmaxwere 12% and 21% lower, respectively, when taken with moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily for five days) in comparison to placebo. Nonetheless, blood glucose levels were decreased slightly in patients taking glyburide and moxifloxacin in comparison to those taking glyburide alone, suggesting no interference by moxifloxacin on the activity of glyburide. These interaction results are not viewed as clinically significant.

Iron

When moxifloxacin tablets were administered concomitantly with iron (ferrous sulfate 100 mg once daily for two days), the mean AUC and Cmax of moxifloxacin was reduced by 39% and 59%, respectively. Moxifloxacin should only be taken more than 4 hours before or 8 hours after iron products. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Drug Interactions (7.1)].

Itraconazole

In a study involving 11 healthy volunteers, there was no significant effect of itraconazole (200 mg once daily for 9 days), a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P4503A4, on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin (a single 400 mg dose given on the 7th day of itraconazole dosing). In addition, moxifloxacin was shown not to affect the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole.

Morphine

No significant effect of morphine sulfate (a single 10 mg intramuscular dose) on the mean AUC and Cmax of moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) was observed in a study of 20 healthy male and female volunteers.

Oral Contraceptives

A placebo-controlled study in 29 healthy female subjects showed that moxifloxacin 400 mg daily for 7 days did not interfere with the hormonal suppression of oral contraception with 0.15 mg levonorgestrel/0.03 mg ethinylestradiol (as measured by serum progesterone, FSH, estradiol, and LH), or with the pharmacokinetics of the administered contraceptive agents.

Probenecid

Probenecid (500 mg twice daily for two days) did not alter the renal clearance and total amount of moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) excreted renally in a study of 12 healthy volunteers.

Ranitidine

No significant effect of ranitidine (150 mg twice daily for three days as pretreatment) on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin (400 mg single dose) was detected in a study involving 10 healthy volunteers.

Theophylline

No significant effect of moxifloxacin (200 mg every twelve hours for 3 days) on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline (400 mg every twelve hours for 3 days) was detected in a study involving 12 healthy volunteers. In addition, theophylline was not shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin. The effect of co-administration of a 400 mg dose of moxifloxacin with theophylline has not been studied, but it is not expected to be clinically significant based on in vitro metabolic data showing that moxifloxacin does not inhibit the CYP1A2 isoenzyme.

Warfarin

No significant effect of moxifloxacin (400 mg once daily for eight days) on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin (25 mg single dose of warfarin sodium on the fifth day) was detected in a study involving 24 healthy volunteers. No significant change in prothrombin time was observed. [see Adverse Reactions (6.2), Drug Interactions (7.2)].

12.4 Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

The bactericidal action of moxifloxacin results from inhibition of the topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. It appears that the C8-methoxy moiety contributes to enhanced activity and lower selection of resistant mutants of Gram-positive bacteria compared to the C8-H moiety. The presence of the bulky bicycloamine substituent at the C-7 position prevents active efflux, associated with the NorA or pmrA genes seen in certain Gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of action for fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin, is different from that of macrolides, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, or tetracyclines; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be susceptible to moxifloxacin. Resistance to fluoroquinolones occurs primarily by a mutation in topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) or topoisomerase IV genes, decreased outer membrane permeability or drug efflux. In vitro resistance to moxifloxacin develops slowly via multiple-step mutations. Resistance to moxifloxacin occurs in vitro at a general frequency of between 1.8 x 10–9 to < 1 x 10–11 for Gram-positive bacteria.

Cross Resistance

Cross-resistance has been observed between moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones against Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria resistant to other fluoroquinolones may, however, still be susceptible to moxifloxacin. There is no known cross-resistance between moxifloxacin and other classes of antimicrobials.

Moxifloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage (1)].

Gram-positive bacteria

Enterococcus faecalis
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus anginosus
Streptococcus constellatus
Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant isolates [MDRSP]**)
Streptococcus pyogenes

**MDRSP, Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae includes isolates previously known as PRSP (Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae), and are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC) ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (for example, cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Gram-negative bacteria

Enterobacter cloacae
Escherichia coli
Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Proteus mirabilis

Anaerobic bacteria

Bacteroides fragilis
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
Clostridium perfringens
Peptostreptococcus species

Other microorganisms

Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for moxifloxacin. However, the efficacy of AVELOX in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive bacteria

Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus viridans group

Gram-negative bacteria

Citrobacter freundii
Klebsiellao axytoca
Legionella pneumophila

Anaerobic bacteria

Fusobacterium species
Prevotella species

Susceptibility Tests Methods

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug product for treatment.

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (broth and/or agar). 1 The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria in Table 8.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters can also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size prove should be determined using a standardized test method.2,3 This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5 mcg moxifloxacin to test the susceptibility of bacteria to moxifloxacin. The disc diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 8.

Anaerobic Techniques

For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to moxifloxacin can be determined by a standardized test method.4 The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 8.

Table 8 Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Moxifloxacin
*
The current absence of data on moxifloxacin-resistant isolates precludes defining any results other than “Susceptible”.
Isolates yielding test results (MIC or zone diameter) other than susceptible, should be submitted to a reference laboratory for additional testing.

MIC (mcg/mL)

Zone Diameter (mm)

Species

S

I

R

S

I

R

Enterobacteriacae

≤2

4

≥8

≥19

16–18

≤15

Enterococcus faecalis

≤1

2

≥4

≥18

15–17

≤14

Staphylococcus aureus

≤2

4

≥8

≥19

16–18

≤15

Haemophilus influenzae

≤1

-*

-*

≥18

-*

-*

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

≤1

-*

-*

≥18

-*

-*

Streptococcus pneumoniae

≤1

2

≥4

≥18

15–17

≤14

Streptococcus species

≤1

2

≥4

≥18

15–17

≤14

Anaerobic bacteria

≤2

4

≥8

-

-

-

S=susceptible, I=Intermediate, and R=resistant.

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the antimicrobial is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations at the infection site necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of the drug product can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay and the techniques of the individuals performing the test.1,2,3,4 Standard moxifloxacin powder should provide the following range of MIC values noted in Table 9. For the diffusion technique using the 5 mcg moxifloxacin disk, the criteria in Table 9 should be achieved.

Table 9 Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for Moxifloxacin

Strains

MIC range
(mcg/mL)

Zone Diameter
(mm)

Enterococcus faecalis

ATCC 29212

0.06–0.5

-

Escherichia coli

ATCC 25922

0.008–0.06

28–35

Haemophilus influenzae

ATCC 49247

0.008–0.03

31–39

Staphylococcus aureus

ATCC29213

0.015–0.06

-

Staphylococcus aureus

ATCC25923

-

28–35

Streptococcus pneumoniae

ATCC 49619

0.06–0.25

25–31

Bacteroides fragilis

ATCC 25285

0.125–0.5

-

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

ATCC 29741

1–4

-

Eubacterium lentum

ATCC 43055

0.125–0.5

-

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long term studies in animals to determine the carcinogenic potential of moxifloxacin have not been performed.

Moxifloxacin was not mutagenic in 4 bacterial strains (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537) used in the Ames Salmonella reversion assay. As with other quinolones, the positive response observed with moxifloxacin in strain TA 102 using the same assay may be due to the inhibition of DNA gyrase. Moxifloxacin was not mutagenic in the CHO/HGPRT mammalian cell gene mutation assay. An equivocal result was obtained in the same assay when v79 cells were used. Moxifloxacin was clastogenic in the v79 chromosome aberration assay, but it did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. There was no evidence of genotoxicity in vivo in a micronucleus test or a dominant lethal test in mice.

Moxifloxacin had no effect on fertility in male and female rats at oral doses as high as 500 mg/kg/day, approximately 12 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area (mg/m2), or at intravenous doses as high as 45 mg/kg/day, approximately equal to the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area (mg/m2). At 500 mg/kg orally there were slight effects on sperm morphology (head-tail separation) in male rats and on the estrous cycle in female rats.

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

Quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals. In studies in juvenile dogs oral doses of moxifloxacin ≥ 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.5 times the maximum recommended human dose based upon systemic exposure) for 28 days resulted in arthropathy. There was no evidence of arthropathy in mature monkeys and rats at oral doses up to 135 and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively.

Moxifloxacin at an oral dose of 300 mg/kg did not show an increase in acute toxicity or potential for CNS toxicity (for example, seizures) in mice when used in combination with NSAIDs such as diclofenac, ibuprofen, or fenbufen. Some quinolones have been reported to have proconvulsant activity that is exacerbated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

A QT-prolonging effect of moxifloxacin was found in dog studies, at plasma concentrations about five times the human therapeutic level. The combined infusion of sotalol, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, with moxifloxacin induced a higher degree of QTc prolongation in dogs than that induced by the same dose (30 mg/kg) of moxifloxacin alone. Electrophysiological in vitro studies suggested an inhibition of the rapid activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) as an underlying mechanism.

No signs of local intolerability were observed in dogs when moxifloxacin was administered intravenously. After intra-arterial injection, inflammatory changes involving the peri-arterial soft tissue were observed suggesting that intra-arterial administration of AVELOX should be avoided.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis

AVELOX Tablets (400 mg once daily for five days) were evaluated for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial conducted in the US. This study compared AVELOX with clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily for 10 days) and enrolled 629 patients. Clinical success was assessed at 7-17 days post-therapy. The clinical success for AVELOX was 89% (222/250) compared to 89% (224/251) for clarithromycin.

Table 10 Clinical Success Rates at Follow-Up Visit for Clinically Evaluable Patients by Pathogen (Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis)

PATHOGEN

AVELOX

Clarithromycin

Streptococcus pneumoniae

16/16 (100%)

20/23 (87%)

Haemophilus influenzae

33/37 (89%)

36/41 (88%)

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

16/16 (100%)

14/14 (100%)

Moraxella catarrhalis

29/34 (85%)

24/24 (100%)

Staphylococcus aureus

15/16 (94%)

6/8 (75%)

Klebsiella pneumoniae

18/20 (90%)

10/11 (91%)

The microbiological eradication rates (eradication plus presumed eradication) in AVELOX treated patients were Streptococcus pneumoniae  100%, Haemophilus influenzae  89%, Haemophilus parainfluenzae  100%, Moraxella catarrhalis 85%, Staphylococcus aureus  94%, and Klebsiella pneumonia 85%.

14.2 Community Acquired Pneumonia

A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in the US to compare the efficacy of AVELOX Tablets (400 mg once daily) to that of high-dose clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) in the treatment of patients with clinically and radiologically documented community acquired pneumonia. This study enrolled 474 patients (382 of whom were valid for the efficacy analysis conducted at the 14 - 35 day follow-up visit). Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was 95% (184/194) for AVELOX and 95% (178/188) for high dose clarithromycin.

A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted in the US and Canada to compare the efficacy of sequential IV/PO AVELOX 400 mg QD for 7-14 days to an IV/PO fluoroquinolone control (trovafloxacin or levofloxacin) in the treatment of patients with clinically and radiologically documented community acquired pneumonia. This study enrolled 516 patients, 362 of whom were valid for the efficacy analysis conducted at the 7-30 day post-therapy visit. The clinical success rate was 86% (157/182) for AVELOX therapy and 89% (161/180) for the fluoroquinolone comparators.

An open-label ex-US study that enrolled 628 patients compared AVELOX to sequential IV/PO amoxicillin/clavulanate (1.2 g IV q8h/625 mg PO q8h) with or without high-dose IV/PO clarithromycin (500 mg BID). The intravenous formulations of the comparators are not FDA approved. The clinical success rate at Day 5-7 for AVELOX therapy was 93% (241/258) and demonstrated superiority to amoxicillin/clavulanate ± clarithromycin (85%, 239/280) [95% C.I. of difference in success rates between moxifloxacin and comparator (2.9%, 13.2%)]. The clinical success rate at the 21-28 days post-therapy visit for AVELOX was 84% (216/258), which also demonstrated superiority to the comparators (74%, 208/280) [95% C.I. of difference in success rates between moxifloxacin and comparator (2.6%, 16.3%)].

The clinical success rates by pathogen across four CAP studies are presented in Table 11.

Table 11 Clinical Success Rates By Pathogen (Pooled CAP Studies)

PATHOGEN

AVELOX

Streptococcus pneumoniae

80/85

(94%)

Staphylococcus aureus

17/20

(85%)

Klebsiella pneumoniae

11/12

(92%)

Haemophilus influenzae

56/61

(92%)

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

119/128

(93%)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

73/76

(96%)

Moraxella catarrhalis

11/12

(92%)

14.3 Community Acquired Pneumonia caused by Multi-Drug Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP)

AVELOX was effective in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae MDRSP* isolates. Of 37 microbiologically evaluable patients with MDRSP isolates, 35 patients (95%) achieved clinical and bacteriological success post-therapy. The clinical and bacteriological success rates based on the number of patients treated are shown in Table 12.

* MDRSP, Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae includes isolates previously known as PRSP (Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae), and are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥ 2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (for example, cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Table 12 Clinical and Bacteriological Success Rates for AVELOX-Treated MDRSP CAP Patients (Population: Valid for Efficacy)
*
n = number of patients successfully treated; N = number of patients with MDRSP (from a total of 37 patients)
n = number of patients successfully treated (presumed eradication or eradication); N = number of patients with MDRSP (from a total of 37 patients)
One patient had a respiratory isolate that was resistant to penicillin and cefuroxime but a blood isolate that was intermediate to penicillin and cefuroxime. The patient is included in the database based on the respiratory isolate.
§
Azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin were the macrolide antimicrobials tested.

Screening Susceptibility

Clinical Success

Bacteriological Success

n/N*

%

n/N

%

Penicillin-resistant

21/21

100%

21/21

100%

2nd generation cephalosporin-resistant

25/26

96%

25/26

96%

Macrolide-resistant§

22/23

96%

22/23

96%

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant

28/30

93%

28/30

93%

Tetracycline-resistant

17/18

94%

17/18

94%

Not all isolates were resistant to all antimicrobial classes tested. Success and eradication rates are summarized in Table 13.

Table 13 Clinical Success Rates and Microbiological Eradication Rates for Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Community Acquired Pneumonia)
*
One patient had a respiratory isolate resistant to 5 antimicrobials and a blood isolate resistant to 3 antimicrobials. The patient was included in the category resistant to 5 antimicrobials.

S. pneumoniae with
MDRSP

Clinical Success

Bacteriological
Eradication Rate

Resistant to 2 antimicrobials

12/13 (92.3 %)

12/13 (92.3 %)

Resistant to 3 antimicrobials

10/11 (90.9 %)*

10/11 (90.9 %)*

Resistant to 4 antimicrobials

6/6 (100%)

6/6 (100%)

Resistant to 5 antimicrobials

7/7 (100%)*

7/7 (100%)*

Bacteremia with MDRSP

9/9 (100%)

9/9 (100%)

14.4 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis

In a controlled double-blind study conducted in the US, AVELOX Tablets (400 mg once daily for ten days) were compared with cefuroxime axetil (250 mg twice daily for ten days) for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis. The trial included 457 patients valid for the efficacy analysis. Clinical success (cure plus improvement) at the 7 to 21 day post-therapy test of cure visit was 90% for AVELOX and 89% for cefuroxime.

An additional non-comparative study was conducted to gather bacteriological data and to evaluate microbiological eradication in adult patients treated with AVELOX 400 mg once daily for seven days. All patients (n = 336) underwent antral puncture in this study. Clinical success rates and eradication/presumed eradication rates at the 21 to 37 day follow-up visit were 97% (29 out of 30) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 83% (15 out of 18) for Moraxella catarrhalis, and 80% (24 out of 30) for Haemophilus influenzae.

14.5 Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial conducted in the US compared the efficacy of AVELOX 400 mg once daily for seven days with cephalexin HCl 500 mg three times daily for seven days. The percentage of patients treated for uncomplicated abscesses was 30%, furuncles 8%, cellulitis 16%, impetigo 20%, and other skin infections 26%. Adjunctive procedures (incision and drainage or debridement) were performed on 17% of the AVELOX treated patients and 14% of the comparator treated patients. Clinical success rates in evaluable patients were 89% (108/122) for AVELOX and 91% (110/121) for cephalexin HCl.

14.6 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Two randomized, active controlled trials of cSSSI were performed. A double-blind trial was conducted primarily in North America to compare the efficacy of sequential IV/PO AVELOX 400 mg QD for 7-14 days to an IV/PO beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor control in the treatment of patients with cSSSI. This study enrolled 617 patients, 335 of which were valid for the efficacy analysis. A second open-label International study compared AVELOX 400 mg QD for 7-21 days to sequential IV/PO beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor control in the treatment of patients with cSSSI. This study enrolled 804 patients, 632 of which were valid for the efficacy analysis. Surgical incision and drainage or debridement was performed on 55% of the AVELOX treated and 53% of the comparator treated patients in these studies and formed an integral part of therapy for this indication. Success rates varied with the type of diagnosis ranging from 61% in patients with infected ulcers to 90% in patients with complicated erysipelas. These rates were similar to those seen with comparator drugs. The overall success rates in the evaluable patients and the clinical success by pathogen are shown in Tables 14 and 15.

Table 14 Overall Clinical Success Rates in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
*
of difference in success rates between Moxifloxacin and comparator (Moxifloxacin – comparator)

Study

AVELOX
n/ N (%)

Comparator
n/N (%)

95% Confidence
Interval*

North America

125/162 (77.2%)

141/173 (81.5%)

(-14.4%, 2%)

International

254/315 (80.6%)

268/317 (84.5%)

(-9.4%, 2.2%)

Table 15 Clinical Success Rates by Pathogen in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
*
methicillin susceptibility was only determined in the North American Study

Pathogen

AVELOX
n/ N (%)

Comparator
n/N (%)

Staphylococcus aureus
(methicillin-susceptible isolates)*

106/129 (82.2%)

120/137 (87.6%)

Escherichia coli

31/38 (81.6 %)

28/33 (84.8 %)

Klebsiella pneumoniae

11/12 (91.7 % )

7/10 (70%)

Enterobacter cloacae

9/11 (81.8%)

4/7 (57.1%)

14.7 Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Two randomized, active controlled trials of cIAI were performed. A double-blind trial was conducted primarily in North America to compare the efficacy of sequential IV/PO AVELOX 400 mg QD for 5-14 days to IV/ piperacillin/tazobactam followed by PO amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of patients with cIAI, including peritonitis, abscesses, appendicitis with perforation, and bowel perforation. This study enrolled 681 patients, 379 of which were considered clinically evaluable. A second open-label international study compared AVELOX 400 mg QD for 5-14 days to IV ceftriaxone plus IV metronidazole followed by PO amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of patients with cIAI. This study enrolled 595 patients, 511 of which were considered clinically evaluable. The clinically evaluable population consisted of subjects with a surgically confirmed complicated infection, at least 5 days of treatment and a 25-50 day follow-up assessment for patients at the Test of Cure visit. The overall clinical success rates in the clinically evaluable patients are shown in Table 16.

Table 16 Clinical Success Rates in Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections
*
of difference in success rates between AVELOX and comparator (AVELOX – comparator)
Excludes 2 patients who required additional surgery within the first 48 hours.
NA - not applicable

Study

AVELOX
n/ N (%)

Comparator
n/N (%)

95% Confidence
Interval*

North America (overall)

146/183 (79.8 %)

153/196 (78.1 %)

(-7.4%, 9.3%)

 Abscess

40/57 (70.2 %)

49/63 (77.8 %)

NA

 Non-abscess

106/126 (84.1 %)

104/133 (78.2 %)

NA

International (overall)

199/246 (80.9 %)

218/265 (82.3 %)

(-8.9 %, 4.2%)

 Abscess

73/93 (78.5 %)

86/99 (86.9 %)

NA

 Non-abscess

126/153 (82.4 %)

132/166 (79.5 %)

NA

15 REFERENCES

1.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically 9th edition. Approved Standard CLSI Document M7-A9, CLSI, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA 19087, 2012.
2.
CLSI, Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing 22 Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S22, 2012.
3.
CLSI, Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests 11th edition. Approved Standard CLSI Document M2-A11, 2012.
4.
CLSI, Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria 8th edition; Approved Standard CLSI Document M11-A8, 2012

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

16.1 AVELOX Tablets

AVELOX (moxifloxacin) hydrochloride tablets are available as oblong, dull red film-coated tablets containing 400 mg moxifloxacin.

The tablet is coded with the word “BAYER” on one side and “M400” on the reverse side.

Package

NDC Code

Bottles of 30

0085-1733-01

Unit Dose Pack of 50

0085-1733-02

ABC Pack of 5

0085-1733-03

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Avoid high humidity.

16.2 AVELOX Intravenous Solution – Premix Bags

AVELOX IV (moxifloxacin) hydrochloride in sodium chloride injection is available in ready-to-use 250 mL latex-free flexible bags containing 400 mg of moxifloxacin in 0.8% saline. NO FURTHER DILUTION OF THIS PREPARATION IS NECESSARY.

Package

NDC Code

250 mL flexible container

0085-1737-01

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. Samples containing visible particulates should not be used.

Because the premix flexible containers are for single-use only, any unused portion should be discarded.

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

DO NOT REFRIGERATE – PRODUCT PRECIPITATES UPON REFRIGERATION.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

See FDA-Approved Medication Guide

Antibacterial Resistance

Antibacterial drugs including AVELOX should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (for example, the common cold). When AVELOX is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by AVELOX or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Administration With Food, Fluids, and Drug Products Containing Multivalent Cations

Patients should be informed that AVELOX tablets may be taken with or without food. Patients should be advised to drink fluids liberally.

AVELOX tablets should be taken at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after multivitamins (containing iron or zinc), antacids (containing magnesium or aluminum), sucralfate, or VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution.

Serious and Potentially Serious Adverse Reactions

To assure safe and effective use of AVELOX, patients should be informed of the following serious adverse reactions that have been associated with AVELOX and other fluoroquinolone use:

Tendon Disorders: Patients should contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue AVELOX treatment. The risk of severe tendon disorder with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: fluoroquinolones like AVELOX may cause worsening of myasthenia gravis symptoms, including muscle weakness and breathing problems. Patients should call their healthcare provider right away if they have any worsening muscle weakness or breathing problems.
Prolongation of the QT interval: AVELOX may produce changes in the electrocardiogram (QTc interval prolongation). AVELOX should be avoided in patients receiving Class IA (for example quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (for example amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. AVELOX may add to the QTc prolonging effects of other drugs such as cisapride, erythromycin, antipsychotics, and tricyclic antidepressants. The patients should inform their physician of any personal or family history of QTc prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as recent hypokalemia, significant bradycardia, and acute myocardial ischemia. Patients should contact their physician if they experience palpitations or fainting spells while taking AVELOX.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Patients should be advised that AVELOX may be associated with hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, even following a single dose. Patients should discontinue AVELOX at the first sign of a skin rash or other signs of an allergic reaction.
Convulsions: Convulsions have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, and they should notify their physician before taking AVELOX if there is a history of this condition. Patients should also inform their physician if they are taking NSAIDs concurrently with AVELOX.
Neurologic Adverse Effects (for example, dizziness, lightheadedness): AVELOX may cause dizziness, lightheadedness and vision disorders; therefore, patients should know how they react to this drug before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in activities requiring mental alertness or coordination.
Psychotic Reaction: Psychotic reactions sometimes resulting in self-injurious behavior have been reported in patients receiving quinolones. Patients should notify their physician if they have a history of psychiatric illness before taking AVELOX.
Peripheral Neuropathies: Patients should be informed that peripheral neuropathy has been associated with AVELOX use. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of therapy and may be irreversible. If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develop, patients should immediately discontinue AVELOX and contact their physician.
Blood Glucose Disturbances: Inform the patients that if they are diabetic and are being treated with insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent and a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, they should discontinue AVELOX and consult a physician.
Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Patients should be informed that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving quinolones. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking quinolones. If patients need to be outdoors while using quinolones, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn-like reaction or skin eruption occurs, patients should contact their physician.
Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

FDA-Approved Medication Guide

MEDICATION GUIDE

AVELOX® (AV-eh-locks)
(moxifloxacin hydrochloride)
Tablets

AVELOX® IV (AV-eh-locks)
(moxifloxacin hydrochloride)
Injection Solution for IV use

Read the Medication Guide that comes with AVELOX® before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.

What is the most important information I should know about AVELOX?

AVELOX belongs to a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. AVELOX can cause side effects that may be serious or even cause death. If you get any of the following serious side effects, get medical help right away. Talk with your healthcare provider about whether you should continue to take AVELOX.

1. Tendon rupture or swelling of the tendon (tendinitis).

Tendon problems can happen in people of all ages who take AVELOX. Tendons are tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Symptoms of tendon problems may include:
Pain, swelling, tears and inflammation of tendons including the back of the ankle (Achilles), shoulder, hand, or other tendon sites.
The risk of getting tendon problems while you take AVELOX is higher if you:
Are over 60 years of age
Are taking steroids (corticosteroids)
Have had a kidney, heart or lung transplant

Tendon problems can happen in people who do not have the above risk factors when they take AVELOX.

Other reasons that can increase your risk of tendon problems can include:
Physical activity or exercise
Kidney failure
Tendon problems in the past, such as in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Call your healthcare provider right away at the first sign of tendon pain, swelling or inflammation. Stop taking AVELOX until tendinitis or tendon rupture has been ruled out by your healthcare provider. Avoid exercise and using the affected area. The most common area of pain and swelling is in the Achilles tendon at the back of your ankle. This can also happen with other tendons.
Talk to your healthcare provider about the risk of tendon rupture with continued use of AVELOX. You may need a different antibiotic that is not a fluoroquinolone to treat your infection.
Tendon rupture can happen while you are taking or after you have finished taking AVELOX. Tendon ruptures have happened up to several months after patients have finished taking their fluoroquinolone.
Get medical help right away if you get any of the following signs or symptoms of a tendon rupture:
Hear or feel a snap or pop in a tendon area
Bruising right after an injury in a tendon area
Unable to move the affected area or bear weight

2. Worsening of myasthenia gravis (a disease which causes muscle weakness). Fluoroquinolones like AVELOX may cause worsening of myasthenia gravis symptoms, including muscle weakness and breathing problems. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any worsening muscle weakness or breathing problems.

See the section “What are the possible side effects of AVELOX?” for more information about side effects.

What is AVELOX?

AVELOX is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic medicine used to treat certain types of infections caused by certain germs called bacteria in adults 18 years or older. It is not known if AVELOX is safe and works in people under 18 years of age. Children have a higher chance of getting bone, joint, and tendon (musculoskeletal) problems while taking fluoroquinolone antibiotic medicines.

Sometimes infections are caused by viruses rather than by bacteria. Examples include viral infections in the sinuses and lungs, such as the common cold or flu. Antibiotics, including AVELOX, do not kill viruses.

Call your healthcare provider if you think your condition is not getting better while you are taking AVELOX.

Who should not take AVELOX?

Do not take AVELOX if you have ever had a severe allergic reaction to an antibiotic known as a fluoroquinolone, or if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in AVELOX. Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure. See the list of ingredients in AVELOX at the end of this Medication Guide.

What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking AVELOX?

See “What is the most important information I should know about AVELOX?”

Tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:

Have tendon problems
Have a disease that causes muscle weakness (myasthenia gravis)
Have central nervous system problems (such as epilepsy)
Have nerve problems
Have or anyone in your family has an irregular heartbeat, especially a condition called “QT prolongation”
Have low blood potassium (hypokalemia)
Have a slow heartbeat (bradycardia)
Have a history of seizures
Have kidney problems
Have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other history of joint problems
Are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. It is not known if AVELOX will harm your unborn child.
Are breast-feeding or planning to breast-feed. It is not known if AVELOX passes into breast milk. You and your healthcare provider should decide whether you will take AVELOX or breast-feed.
Have diabetes or problems with low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal and dietary supplements. AVELOX and other medicines can affect each other causing side effects. Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take:

An NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug). Many common medicines for pain relief are NSAIDs. Taking an NSAID while you take AVELOX or other fluoroquinolones may increase your risk of central nervous system effects and seizures. See “What are the possible side effects of AVELOX?
A blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven).
A medicine to control your heart rate or rhythm (antiarrhythmic) See “What are the possible side effects of AVELOX?
An anti-psychotic medicine.
A tricyclic antidepressant.
An oral anti-diabetes medicine or insulin.
Erythromycin.
A water pill (diuretic).
A steroid medicine. Corticosteroids taken by mouth or by injection may increase the chance of tendon injury. See “What is the most important information I should know about AVELOX?
Certain medicines may keep AVELOX from working correctly. Take AVELOX either 4 hours before or 8 hours after taking these products:
An antacid, multivitamin, or other product that has magnesium, aluminum, iron, or zinc
Sucralfate (Carafate)
Didanosine (Videx®, Videx EC®)

Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure if any of your medicines are listed above.

Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.

How should I take AVELOX?

Take AVELOX once a day exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
Take AVELOX at about the same time each day.
AVELOX Tablets should be swallowed.
AVELOX can be taken with or without food.
Drink plenty of fluids while taking AVELOX.
AVELOX IV is given to you by intravenous (IV) infusion into your vein slowly, over 60 minutes, as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
Do not skip any doses, or stop taking AVELOX even if you begin to feel better, until you finish your prescribed treatment, unless:
You have tendon effects (see “What is the most important information I should know about AVELOX?”).
You have a serious allergic reaction (see “What are the possible side effects of AVELOX?”), or your healthcare provider tells you to stop.
This will help make sure that all of the bacteria are killed and lower the chance that the bacteria will become resistant to AVELOX. If this happens, AVELOX and other antibiotic medicines may not work in the future.
If you miss a dose of AVELOX, take it as soon as you remember. Do not take more than 1 dose of AVELOX in one day.
If you take too much, call your healthcare provider or get medical help immediately.

What should I avoid while taking AVELOX?

AVELOX can make you feel dizzy and lightheaded. Do not drive, operate machinery, or do other activities that require mental alertness or coordination until you know how AVELOX affects you.
Avoid sunlamps, tanning beds, and try to limit your time in the sun. AVELOX can make your skin sensitive to the sun (photosensitivity) and the light from sunlamps and tanning beds. You could get severe sunburn, blisters or swelling of your skin. If you get any of these symptoms while taking AVELOX, call your healthcare provider right away. You should use a sunscreen and wear a hat and clothes that cover your skin if you have to be in sunlight.

What are the possible side effects of AVELOX?

AVELOX can cause side effects that may be serious or even cause death. See “What is the most important information I should know about AVELOX?

Other serious side effects of AVELOX include:

Central Nervous System effects 

Seizures have been reported in people who take fluoroquinolone antibiotics including AVELOX. Tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of seizures. Ask your healthcare provider whether taking AVELOX will change your risk of having a seizure.

Central Nervous System (CNS) side effects may happen as soon as after taking the first dose of AVELOX. Talk to your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these side effects, or other changes in mood or behavior:

Feeling dizzy
Seizures
Hear voices, see things, or sense things that are not there (hallucinations)
Feel restless
Tremors
Feel anxious or nervous
Confusion
Depression
Trouble sleeping
Feel more suspicious (paranoia)
Suicidal thoughts or acts
Nightmares
Vision Loss
Serious allergic reactions

Allergic reactions can happen in people taking fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX, even after only one dose. Stop taking AVELOX and get emergency medical help right away if you get any of the following symptoms of a severe allergic reaction:

Hives
Trouble breathing or swallowing
Swelling of the lips, tongue, face
Throat tightness, hoarseness
Rapid heartbeat
Faint
Yellowing of the skin or eyes. Stop taking AVELOX and tell your healthcare provider right away if you get yellowing of your skin or white part of your eyes, or if you have dark urine. These can be signs of a serious reaction to AVELOX (a liver problem).
Skin rash

Skin rash may happen in people taking AVELOX even after only one dose. Stop taking AVELOX at the first sign of a skin rash and call your healthcare provider. Skin rash may be a sign of a more serious reaction to AVELOX.

Serious heart rhythm changes (QT prolongation and torsade de pointes)

Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a change in your heart beat (a fast or irregular heartbeat), or if you faint. AVELOX may cause a rare heart problem known as prolongation of the QT interval. This condition can cause an abnormal heartbeat and can be very dangerous. The chances of this event are higher in people:

Who are elderly
With a family history of prolonged QT interval
With low blood potassium (hypokalemia)
Who take certain medicines to control heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics)
Intestine infection (Pseudomembranous colitis)

Pseudomembranous colitis can happen with most antibiotics, including AVELOX. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get watery diarrhea, diarrhea that does not go away, or bloody stools. You may have stomach cramps and a fever. Pseudomembranous colitis can happen 2 or more months after you have finished your antibiotic.

Changes in sensation and nerve damage (Peripheral Neuropathy) 

Damage to the nerves in arms, hands, legs, or feet can happen in people taking fluoroquinolones, including AVELOX. Stop AVELOX and talk with your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms of peripheral neuropathy in your arms, hands, legs, or feet:

Pain
Burning
Tingling
Numbness
Weakness

The nerve damage may be permanent.

Changes in blood sugar
 
People who take AVELOX and other fluoroquinolone medicines with oral anti-diabetes medicines or with insulin can get low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Follow your healthcare provider's instructions for how often to check your blood sugar. If you have diabetes and you get low blood sugar while taking AVELOX, stop taking AVELOX and call your healthcare provider right away. Your antibiotic medicine may need to be changed.
Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity)

See “What should I avoid while taking AVELOX?

The most common side effects of AVELOX include nausea and diarrhea.

These are not all the possible side effects of AVELOX. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store AVELOX?

AVELOX Tablets

Store AVELOX 59–86°F (15–30°C)
Keep AVELOX away from moisture (humidity)

Keep AVELOX and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General Information about AVELOX

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use AVELOX for a condition for which it is not prescribed. Do not give AVELOX to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.

This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about AVELOX. If you would like more information about AVELOX, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about AVELOX that is written for healthcare professionals. For more information go to www.AVELOX.com or call 1-800-526-4099.

What are the ingredients in AVELOX?

AVELOX Tablets:
Active ingredient: moxifloxacin hydrochloride
Inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, and ferric oxide
AVELOX IV:
Active ingredient: moxifloxacin hydrochloride
Inactive ingredients: sodium chloride, USP, water for injection, USP, and may include hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment

Revised November 2014

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Manufactured for:
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Whippany, NJ 07981

AVELOX Tablets manufactured in Germany
AVELOX IV manufactured in Germany
or
AVELOX IV manufactured in Norway by
Fresenius Kabi Norge AS
NO-1753 Halden, Norway

Distributed by:
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of
Merck & Co, Inc.
Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA

AVELOX® is a registered trademark of Bayer Aktiengesellschaft and is used under license by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.

Rx Only

©2014 Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Avelox® I.V.

(moxifloxacinHCl in NaCl injection)

400 mg*/250 mL 0.8% Saline (1.6 mg/mL)

INFUSE OVER A PERIOD OF 60 MINUTES

NDC 0085-1737-01 08917631

IV BAG

Avelox Five Tablet Carton

08917542 NDC 0085-1733-03

Aveloxmoxifloxacin HCI Tablets

FIVE TABLETS

ABC PACK

AVELOX BRONCHITIS COURSE

For Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis

Attention Pharmacist: Dispense the accompanying Medication Guide to each patient.

One Tablet, Once Daily for Just 5 Days

Rx Only

This pack is intended for the teatment of brochitis. Other conditions may require a longer duration of therapy.

Avelox Carton

AVELOX 
moxifloxacin hydrochloride injection, solution
Product Information
Product Type Item Code (Source) 0085-1737
Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
MOXIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE (MOXIFLOXACIN) MOXIFLOXACIN 400 mg  in 250 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
SODIUM CHLORIDE  
WATER  
HYDROCHLORIC ACID  
SODIUM HYDROXIDE  
Product Characteristics
Color      Score     
Shape Size
Flavor Imprint Code
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0085-1737-01 250 mL in 1 BAG None

Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA021277 11/30/2001

AVELOX 
moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Product Information
Product Type Item Code (Source) 0085-1733
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
MOXIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE (MOXIFLOXACIN) MOXIFLOXACIN 400 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE  
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE  
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
HYPROMELLOSES  
TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS  
FERRIC OXIDE RED  
Product Characteristics
Color RED Score no score
Shape OVAL (capsule-shaped) Size 17mm
Flavor Imprint Code BAYER;M400
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0085-1733-03 5 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOX, UNIT-DOSE None
2 0085-1733-02 50 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOX, UNIT-DOSE None
3 0085-1733-01 30 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC None
4 0085-1733-04 1 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOX None

Image of Product
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA021085 12/10/1999

Labeler - Schering Plough Corporation (001317601)
Registrant - Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. (005436809)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Bayer Pharma AG 341081414 MANUFACTURE, MANUFACTURE
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Fresenius Kabi Norge AS 731170932 MANUFACTURE

Revised: 11/2014 Schering Plough Corporation

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