Study Suggests Suboptimal Adherence Affects Efficacy of Lopinavir/ritonavir More Than Darunavir/ritonavir
"[This study] examine[d] how treatment adherence differences in ARTEMIS (96 week analysis) affected clinical outcome, and assess[ed] factors impacting adherence. ... ARTEMIS is a Phase III trial, in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive patients, comparing efficacy and safety of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg) versus lopinavir/ritonavir (800/200 mg total daily dose), each with a fixed-dose background tenofovir and emtricitabine regimen. ... Overall adherence was high: 83% of darunavir/ritonavir-treated patients and 78% of lopinavir/ritonavir-treated patients were >95% adherent. The difference in virological response rate for adherent versus suboptimally adherent patients was smaller for darunavir/ritonavir (6% difference: 82% versus 76%, P = 0.3312) than for lopinavir/ritonavir (25% difference: 78% versus 53%, P < 0.0001). In suboptimally adherent patients, a higher virological response rate was seen with darunavir/ritonavir (76%) versus lopinavir/ritonavir (53%) (P < 0.01). Suboptimally adherent patients (both treatment groups) reported more adverse events (AEs), including gastrointestinal AEs, than adherent patients. Darunavir/ritonavir had a lower rate of AEs, including gastrointestinal AEs, than lopinavir/ritonavir, in adherent and suboptimally adherent patients. ... Suboptimal adherence had no significant effect on the virological response rate with once-daily darunavir/ritonavir treatment. In contrast, the lopinavir/ritonavir response rate was significantly reduced in suboptimally adherent patients compared with adherent patients. Once-daily darunavir/ritonavir resulted in a higher virological response rate in suboptimally adherent patients compared with lopinavir/ritonavir."
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Study Suggests Toll-Like Receptor 9 Polymorphisms Influence Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
“Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play a crucial role in the host's innate immune response. Genetic variations in TLR genes may influence host-viral interactions and might impact upon the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic variants of TLR 9 gene on MTCT . … Three hundred children (118 HIV-1-infected and 182 HIV-1-uninfected) born to HIV-1-infected mothers were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) NM_017442.2: c.4-44G>A (rs352139) and c.1635A>G (rs352140) of the TLR9 gene were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPStats program. … When considered separately, neither of the two SNPs was significantly associated with risk of HIV-1 infection. However, the [A;A] and [G;G] haplotypes were associated with a higher risk of HIV-1 infection compared to the prevalent [G;A] haplotype [odds ratio (OR) = 3.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-8.03, p=0.016, and OR=5.54, 95% CI 1.76-17.50, p=0.004, respectively]. … Overall, results demonstrate a significant correlation between specific genetic variants of the TLR9 gene and risk of MTCT of HIV-1, thus confirming a critical role of innate immunity in perinatal HIV-1 infection. Strategies aimed at modulating innate immunity might be useful for future treatment of pediatric HIV-1 infection and AIDS.”
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