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AIDSinfo Glossary Search

A - Z Index

glossary a-z index

Gamma GlobulinAudio (En español)

A group of proteins found in blood plasma. Most antibodies are gamma globulins. Injections of gamma globulin, which contain high levels of antibodies, can be given to boost a person’s immune system.

See Related Term(s):  Antibody

Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) Audio (En español)

An enzyme found in many organs in the body, including the liver. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase may be measured as part of a liver function test.

See Related Term(s):  Liver Function Test

GastroenteritisAudio (En español)

Inflammation of any segment of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Audio (En español)

Pertaining to the stomach and intestinal tract. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, may be caused by HIV infection, opportunistic infections, or some antiretroviral (ARV) drugs.


Also Known As: Guillain-Barré Syndrome

GeneAudio (En español)

A short segment of DNA (or in the case of some viruses, RNA). Most genes contain the information needed to make a particular protein.

See Related Term(s):  Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Genome, Protein, Ribonucleic Acid

Generic DrugAudio (En español)

A drug that has the same active ingredients, dosage, formulation, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, effectiveness, and intended use as a brand-name drug. For example, ibuprofen is a generic drug that has several manufacturers and brand names, including Advil and Motrin. Generic drugs are usually less expensive than brand-name drugs.

Gene TherapyAudio (En español)

Manipulating genes to treat or prevent disease. Gene therapy techniques being researched include replacing a defective gene with a healthy copy of the gene, repairing an abnormal gene, inactivating an improperly functioning gene, and introducing a new disease-fighting gene.

See Related Term(s):  Gene

Genetic EngineeringAudio (En español)

Using biotechnological techniques to modify an organism by changing its genetic material (DNA or RNA). For example, bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce insulin, which can then be used to treat diabetes.

See Related Term(s):  Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Ribonucleic Acid

Genital Ulcer DiseaseAudio (En español)

Any of several diseases that are characterized by genital sores. Genital ulcer diseases are usually sexually transmitted infections, including genital herpes (herpes simplex virus 2 infection), syphilis, and chancroid. Genital ulcer diseases increase the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.

See Related Term(s):  Sexually Transmitted Infection

Genital WartsAudio (En español)

Also known as: Condyloma Acuminatum, Venereal Warts

A sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital warts appear as raised pink or flesh-colored bumps on the surface of the vagina, cervix, tip of the penis, or anus.

See Related Term(s):  Human Papillomavirus, Sexually Transmitted Infection

Genitourinary System

Also Known As: Genitourinary Tract

Genitourinary TractAudio (En español)

Also known as: Genitourinary System, Urogenital System, Urogenital Tract

All organs involved in the production and excretion of urine plus all organs involved with reproduction. Organs of the genitourinary tract include the kidneys, bladder, fallopian tubes, and penis.

GenomeAudio (En español)

The complete genetic material of an organism, including all of its genes. The genome is contained in a set of chromosomes in humans, a single chromosome in bacteria, and a DNA or RNA molecule in viruses. The HIV genome consists of an RNA molecule and includes nine genes.

See Related Term(s):  Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Gene, Ribonucleic Acid

Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test (GART) Audio (En español)

Also known as: Genotypic Assay

A type of resistance test that detects drug-resistant mutations in HIV genes. Resistance testing is used to guide selection of an HIV regimen when initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy (ART).

See Related Term(s):  Phenotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test, Resistance Testing

Genotypic Assay

Also Known As: Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test


Also Known As: Gastrointestinal

GlucoseAudio (En español)

Also known as: Blood Sugar, Sugar

Blood sugar. Glucose, the main source of fuel for the body, is formed when foods are broken down in the digestive system. After digestion, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and then used for cell growth and energy.

See Related Term(s):  Diabetes, Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance

GlycoproteinAudio (En español)

A molecule that consists of a protein plus one or more carbohydrates.

Glycoprotein 120

Also Known As: gp120

Glycoprotein 160

Also Known As: gp160

Glycoprotein 41

Also Known As: gp41

GonorrheaAudio (En español)

A sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonorrhea can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her child during delivery. Gonorrhea often has mild or no symptoms. However, if left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to infertility, and it can spread into the bloodstream and affect the joints, heart valves, and brain. Gonorrhea increases the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.

See Related Term(s):  Sexually Transmitted Infection

gp120Audio (En español)

Also known as: Glycoprotein 120

A glycoprotein on the HIV envelope. gp120 binds to a CD4 receptor on a host cell, such as a CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4 cell). This starts the process by which HIV fuses its viral membrane with the host cell membrane and enters the host cell.

See Related Term(s):  Envelope, Fusion, Glycoprotein, Life Cycle

gp160Audio (En español)

Also known as: Glycoprotein 160

An HIV glycoprotein. gp160 is a precursor of the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp41 and gp120.

See Related Term(s):  Glycoprotein, Life Cycle, gp120, gp41

gp41Audio (En español)

Also known as: Glycoprotein 41

A glycoprotein on the HIV envelope. HIV enters a host cell by using gp41 to fuse the HIV envelope with the host cell membrane.

See Related Term(s):  Fusion, Glycoprotein, Life Cycle

GranulocyteAudio (En español)

A type of white blood cell that includes neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Granulocytes help the body fight infection.

See Related Term(s):  White Blood Cell

Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Audio (En español)

A protein that stimulates neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell, to multiply and mature. A laboratory-produced version of this protein is used to boost a low neutrophil count.

See Related Term(s):  Granulocyte, White Blood Cell

Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Audio (En español)

A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply and mature. A laboratory-produced version of this protein is often used to boost a low white blood cell count.

See Related Term(s):  Granulocyte, White Blood Cell

GranulocytopeniaAudio (En español)

Also known as: Agranulocytopenia

A deficiency or abnormal decrease in the number of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. Granulocytopenia may be caused by certain bone marrow diseases, chemotherapy, or certain drugs used to treat HIV and opportunistic infections.

See Related Term(s):  Granulocyte

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) Audio (En español)

Also known as: Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

A rare acute neurological disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) primarily destroys the myelin that covers the peripheral nerves, causing the nerve signals to slow down. This damage can result in weakness and sometimes paralysis of the legs, arms, face, and breathing muscles. GBS is often preceded by a bacterial or viral infection and can occur early in the course of HIV infection.

See Related Term(s):  Myelin, Peripheral Nervous System

GynecomastiaAudio (En español)

Development of larger-than-normal breasts in males. Gynecomastia is due to excess growth of breast tissue, not fat tissue. Gynecomastia is sometimes caused by natural hormonal changes, but it can also be due to use of certain medications, including antiretroviral (ARV) drugs.

See Related Term(s):  Body Habitus Changes