Acute Retroviral Syndrome (En español)
Flu-like symptoms of acute HIV infection that may appear approximately 2 to 4 weeks after infection. Symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes can last from a few days to 4 weeks, and then subside. During the acute stage of HIV infection, many, but not all, people will have symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome.
See Related Term(s): Acute HIV Infection
A drug used to prevent a retrovirus, such as HIV, from replicating. The term primarily refers to antiretroviral (ARV) HIV drugs.
See Related Term(s): Drug Class, Retrovirus
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (En español)
A project established to monitor prenatal exposures to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and to detect any potential increase in the risk of related birth defects. Pregnant women exposed to ARV drugs voluntarily enroll in the Registry through their health care providers. Information provided to the Registry includes no identifying patient information.
Antiretroviral Toxic Neuropathy (En español)
Nerve damage that is due to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs.
See Related Term(s): Neuropathy
A drug made of short segments of DNA or RNA that can bind to and alter or suppress the function of viral DNA or RNA. Antisense antivirals prevent viruses from replicating.
A drug used to prevent the growth or replication of viruses.
See Related Term(s): Virus
HIV Viral Core
Also Known As: Core
HIV Viral Envelope
Also Known As: Envelope
Phenotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test (En español)
Also known as: Phenotypic Assay
A type of resistance test that measures the extent to which a person's strain of HIV will multiply in different concentrations of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Resistance testing is used to guide selection of an HIV regimen when initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy (ART).
See Related Term(s): Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Test, Resistance Testing
When the amount of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected with a viral load (HIV RNA) test. Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may reduce a person's viral load to an undetectable level; however, that does not mean the person is cured. Some HIV, in the form of latent HIV reservoirs, remain inside cells and in body tissues.
See Related Term(s): Latent HIV Reservoir, Viral Load Test
The change in the genetic makeup of a virus population as the viruses mutate and multiply over time. HIV evolves rapidly because of its high mutation and replication rates. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the body's immune response can also influence HIV evolution.
When a virus is present in the body but exists in a resting (latent) state without producing more virus. A latent viral infection usually does not cause any noticeable symptoms and can last a long period of time before becoming active and causing symptoms. HIV is capable of viral latency, as seen in the reservoirs of latent HIV-infected cells that persist in a person’s body despite antiretroviral therapy (ART).
See Related Term(s): Latent HIV Reservoir
The amount of HIV in a sample of blood. Viral load (VL) is reported as the number of HIV RNA copies per milliliter of blood. An important goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress a person’s VL to an undetectable level—a level too low for the virus to be detected by a VL test.
See Related Term(s): Viral Load Test
A laboratory test that measures the amount of HIV in a blood sample. Results are reported as the number of copies of HIV RNA per milliliter of blood. Examples of viral load tests include quantitative branched DNA (bDNA), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and qualitative transcription-mediated amplification. Viral load tests are used to diagnose acute HIV infection, guide treatment choices, and monitor response to antiretroviral therapy (ART).
See Related Term(s): Qualitative Transcription-Mediated Amplification, Quantitative Branched DNA, Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction
Also known as: Rebound
When a person on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has persistent, detectable levels of HIV in the blood after a period of undetectable levels. Causes of viral rebound can include drug resistance or poor adherence to an HIV treatment regimen.
See Related Term(s): Undetectable Viral Load
Also known as: Virologic Control
When antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces a person’s viral load (HIV RNA) to an undetectable level. Viral suppression does not mean a person is cured; HIV still remains in the body. If ART is discontinued, the person’s viral load will likely return to a detectable level.
See Related Term(s): Undetectable Viral Load
Also known as: Tropism
When HIV selectively attaches to a particular coreceptor on the surface of the host cell. HIV can attach to either the CCR5 coreceptor (R5-tropic) or the CXCR4 coreceptor (X4-tropic) or both (dual-tropic).
See Related Term(s): Dual-Tropic Virus, R5-Tropic Virus, X4-Tropic Virus