World AIDS Day 2009
December 1, 2009
December 1, 2009 is the 22nd annual observance of World AIDS Day. World AIDS Day was established in 1988 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to raise awareness about the global AIDS epidemic. In 2008, the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that there were 33.4 million people in the world living with HIV. In that year alone, 2.7 million people were newly infected with HIV.
The 2009 World AIDS Day theme is "Stop AIDS. Keep the Promise - Universal Access and Human Rights." Universal access to accurate and up-to-date HIV/AIDS treatment information is a human rights issue.
AIDSinfo is proud to participate in World AIDS Day by announcing the release of the updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. In addition, this AIDSinfo page includes an in-depth overview of the types of HIV research being conducted throughout the world.
World AIDS Day Featured Web Pages
Current Areas of HIV Research
Each year, the Office of AIDS Research (OAR) develops a Trans-National Institutes of Health (NIH) Plan for HIV-Related Research to prioritize AIDS-related research. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has developed a research strategy to address these priorities.
AIDSinfo is proud to showcase the myriad of HIV research being conducted around the globe to better understand HIV and how it causes disease; find new tools to prevent HIV infection, including a preventive vaccine; develop new and more effective treatments for people infected with HIV; and hopefully, find a cure.
|1. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
PrEP is a prevention strategy currently being studied in clinical trials to determine whether anti-HIV medications taken prior to exposure to HIV can prevent or block transmission.
2. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT)
An HIV-infected mother can transmit HIV to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or through breastfeeding. Interventions exist that significantly reduce the risk of transmission, but safer, simpler, and less expensive interventions that preserve the health of the mother and child are still needed.
Topical microbicides, are gels, foams, or creams that are applied to the vagina or rectum before sex to prevent transmission of HIV. The main goal of the NIAID HIV Topical Microbicide Research Program is to support research that leads to identification and development of safe, effective, and acceptable topical microbicides.
4. Behavioral and Social Research
Behavioral interventions attempt to reduce behaviors that place people at high risk of HIV infection.
5. Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Presence of an STI is believed to increase the risk of HIV transmission. Ongoing research is evaluating whether controlling STIs can reduce HIV transmission.
6. Reducing HIV Risk in Injection and Non-Injection Drug Users
Drug-related risk behaviors, including sharing needles and exchanging sex for drugs or money, can increase the risk of HIV infection. Research is underway to develop strategies to reduce the risk of HIV and other STIs for injection and non-injection drug users.
|1. Preventive HIV Vaccines|
Preventive HIV vaccines aim to prevent HIV infection in HIV-uninfected people. There is no preventive HIV vaccine approved for use; however, there are several clinical trials evaluating different vaccine strategies.
2. Therapeutic HIV Vaccines
Therapeutic HIV vaccines aim to treat people who already have HIV. Therapeutic vaccines are designed to boost an individual's immune response to HIV infection to better control the virus and delay the need for HIV medications.
|1. Treatment-Naive Patients|
People newly infected with HIV can remain healthy for a number of years without starting treatment. Current research examines when HIV-infected, treatment-naive people should start treatment and what medication combinations are the best first-line regimens.
2. Treatment-Experienced Patients
People who have been on anti-HIV medications for many years may need to change their medication regimens because of medication side effects or treatment failure. The goal of research is to identify new drugs that are less toxic, have fewer side effects, target drug-resistant strains, and promote better adherence.
3. Management of HIV-Related Coinfections and Complications
Certain infections are more common in HIV-infected individuals, such as Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). Some of these infections can be transmitted at the same time as HIV, while others can occur more often when the immune system has been weakened by advanced HIV disease. Drug selection, drug interactions, and disease progression can all impact the management or treatment of individuals with these complications.