Glossary of Terms for Supplement
Carcinogenic: Producing or tending to produce cancer
Six nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside NRTIs) and one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nucleotide NRTI) are currently approved; zalcitabine is no longer available in the United States. Data are available from clinical trials in human pregnancy for the nucleoside NRTIs zidovudine, abacavir, lamivudine, didanosine, emtricitabine, and stavudine and the nucleotide NRTI tenofovir. The nucleoside analogue drugs require three intracellular phosphorylation steps to form the triphosphate nucleoside, which is the active drug moiety. Tenofovir, an acyclic nucleotide analogue drug, contains a monophosphate component attached to the adenine base and, hence, requires only two phosphorylation steps to form the active moiety.
For information regarding the nucleoside analogue drug class and potential mitochondrial toxicity in pregnancy and to the infant, see NRTI Drugs and Mitochondrial Toxicity.
Abacavir (Ziagen, ABC)
Didanosine (Videx, ddI)
Emtricitabine (Emtriva, FTC)
Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC)
Stavudine (Zerit, d4T)
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread, TDF)
Zalcitabine (HIVID, ddC)
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT, ZDV)