skip navigation

Skip Nav

Clinical Guidelines Portal

Clinical Guidelines Portal

Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

(Last updated:November 06, 2013; last reviewed:November 06, 2013)

Panel's Recommendations

Panel’s Recommendations

  • The main approach to treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is treatment with an effective antiretroviral regimen that suppresses HIV viremia and preserves or restores CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell-defined immune function (AII).
  • Intrathecal cytosine arabinoside and cidofovir are not routinely recommended for treatment of PML (BIII). 
  • Immunomodulatory approaches, such as interferon alfa, are not routinely recommended for treatment of PML (BIII).
Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Optional
Rating of Evidence: I = One or more randomized trials in children with clinical outcomes and/or validated endpoints; I* = One or more randomized trials in adults with clinical outcomes and/or validated laboratory endpoints with accompanying data in children from one or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes; II = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies in children with long-term outcomes; II* = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational studies in adults with long-term clinical outcomes with accompanying data in children from one or more similar nonrandomized trials or cohort studies with clinical outcome data; III = Expert opinion

Studies that include children or children/adolescents, but not studies limited to post-pubertal adolescents

Epidemiology

First described in association with disorders of B-cell function, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Hodgkin disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs in immunocompromised patients.1 In HIV-infected adults, CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4 cell) counts less than 100 cells/mm3 are associated with development of PML, and persistence of CD4 counts less than 50 to 100 cells/mm3 are associated with fatal PML. Not all patients with PML have severe immune dysfunction, however, and PML has been reported in HIV-infected patients with high CD4 counts who are receiving successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). 

PML is caused by JC virus (JCV), a ubiquitous polyomavirus, named using the initials of the patient, John Cunningham, from whom it was first isolated. Most humans are infected with JCV early in life; in a seroepidemiology study, 50% of Swedish children were seropositive for JCV by ages 9 to 11 years, and 72% of adult women aged ≥25 years in the Finnish Maternity Cohort were JCV seropositive.2 The exact mode of transmission of JCV between individuals is unknown. Because the virus is commonly detected in urine, JCV has been detected in sewage effluent. It is also detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Vertical transmission from mother to newborn also has been documented.3,4 Lymphocytes, renal tubular epithelium, bone marrow, and possibly spleen and lymphoid tissue likely represent sites of viral latency, and lymphocytes also may be a vehicle for spread of the virus to other organ systems, including the CNS.5,6 

The evolution of asymptomatic infection with JCV to symptomatic PML probably involves a series of events that are both virologic and immunologic. The original infecting strain of JCV—the strain that is commonly detected in urine and blood—mutates and alters a regulatory gene through rearrangement of a non-coding region (at-NCCR to rr-NCCR) to become a neurotropic strain of JCV capable of replicating in neuronal glial cells.7 Failed immune surveillance allows replicating virus to persist in peripheral blood cells and serum. If the neurotropic form of JCV gains entry into the brain, it can then establish a productive infection in oligodendrocyte cells, which leads to PML in the absence of proper CNS immune surveillance.8 Serotonin receptor 5-HT(2a) appears important for JCV infection of brain glial cells.9 Recently, in HIV-uninfected adults, an increased incidence of PML has been associated with use of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, including natalizumab (an alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 7 antagonist that targets activated lymphocytes), efalizumab (an anti CD-11a antibody that targets T-lymphocytes), rituximab (an anti CD-20 antibody that targets B-lymphocytes), and alemtuzumab (an anti-CD52 antibody that depletes both T and B cells).8,10-12

PML is an AIDS-defining illness in HIV-infected individuals. It has rarely been seen in reports from large series of HIV-infected children,13-15 but cases have been reported in children with a wide range of ages and a broad geographical distribution.16-22 The incidence of PML has decreased from 3.3 cases per 1000 person-years at risk during the era before cART, to 1.3 cases per 1000 person-years after the introduction of cART.23 During the pre-cART era, survival was extremely poor in adults and children with PML.15 Survival among adults has improved during the cART era24-26 from 10% to 50%, and mean survival time from time of diagnosis of PML has increased from 0.4 years to 1.8 years.27 No comparable data exist for children.

Clinical Manifestations

No symptoms are known to be associated with acute or latent JCV infection. Asymptomatic urinary shedding is common. PML is the primary disease caused by JCV and clinical manifestations in children are similar to those in adults. The disease has an insidious onset and produces a neurologic syndrome that steadily progresses over weeks or months, characterized by confusion, disorientation, lack of energy, loss of balance, cognitive dysfunction, dementia, seizures, ataxia, aphasia, cranial nerve deficits, visual abnormalities (blurred or double vision or loss of vision), hemiparesis or quadriparesis, and eventually coma. 

Demyelination is at first patchy, involving subcortical regions, and then spreads to deep white matter in a confluent pattern; thus, PML initially may present with focal neurologic deficits that involve different brain regions. 

Diagnosis

The established criteria for clinical diagnosis are focal signs and symptoms on neurologic examination, focal white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) without mass effect, and exclusion of other causes of the clinical and neuroradiologic findings.28 A confirmed diagnosis of PML requires a compatible clinical syndrome and radiographic findings, coupled with brain biopsy demonstrating a characteristic triad of pathologic foci of demyelination, enlarged hyperchromatic oligodendrocytes with enlarged nuclei and basophilic-staining intranuclear material, and enlarged astrocytes with bizarre hyperchromatic nuclei. When only two of these features are present, JCV can be demonstrated by in situ hybridization or by electron microscopy for definitive diagnosis.

Brain biopsy remains the gold standard confirmatory test for diagnosis of PML, but brain imaging with MRI or CT can reveal characteristic lesions. The radiologic features of PML are typically non-inflammatory (unless associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome [IRIS] related to initiation of cART). Typical CT abnormalities include single or multiple hypodense, non-enhancing cerebral white matter lesions; cerebellum and brain stem occasionally are involved. MRI may be more sensitive for detecting changes in the brain associated with PML, and may be positive before JCV DNA is detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). MRI depicts white matter lesions of low T1 signal intensity and high proton density on T2-weighted images with absence of edema or mass effect. Post-contrast enhancement is unusual, and when present, usually is sparse, with a thin or reticulated appearance adjacent to the edge of the lesions.

PML diagnosis is now facilitated by use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect JCV DNA in CSF, which may obviate the need for brain biopsy in patients with a compatible clinical syndrome and radiographic findings. Nested JCV DNA PCR on CSF is highly sensitive (90%–100%) and specific (92%–100%) for PML in adults, and in the absence of comparative data for children, similar performance characteristics are anticipated but not proven in that population.29 False-negative tests occur, however, and PML may be present and diagnosed by brain biopsy in patients with a negative JCV DNA PCR test in the CSF. Measurement of JCV DNA levels in CSF samples can be a useful virologic marker for managing PML in patients receiving cART.30 With the advent of multiple modalities to support PML diagnosis, diagnostic criteria can be stratified according to the following terminology and levels of certainty of diagnosis: 
  • Biopsy-confirmed PML: JCV antigens detected by immunohistochemistry, JCV DNA detected by in situ nucleic acid hybridization, or JC virions detected by electron microscopy in brain tissue obtained by cerebral biopsy, associated with typical histology, in patients with typical clinical and radiological findings
  • Laboratory-confirmed PML: JCV DNA detected by PCR of CSF in patients with typical, clinical, and radiological findings (detection of intrathecal antibody production may also support the diagnosis)
  • Possible PML: Patients with typical clinical and radiological findings, without virologic or histologic confirmation in brain tissue or CSF.31,32

Presence of antibodies to JCV in the serum or presence of JCV DNA in the blood or urine of patients does not establish the diagnosis of PML because these studies can be positive in individuals without PML. Conversely, while most patients with JCV-associated PML have moderate to high anti-JCV antibodies and JCV DNA in their peripheral blood, serum, and CSF, some patients with PML diagnosed by brain biopsy will not have detectable anti-JCV antibody or JCV DNA in their blood or CSF. Most patients with JCV-associated PML, however, have moderate to high anti-JCV antibodies and JCV DNA in their peripheral blood, serum, and CSF.

Prevention Recommendations

Preventing Exposure

There is no known way to prevent exposure to JCV.

Preventing First Episode of Disease

Use of cART can prevent or reverse the severe immunosuppression that increases the risk of PML. Incidence of PML has decreased in the cART era. There are no means of preventing PML in severely immunosuppressed individuals. 

Discontinuing Primary Prophylaxis

No means of primary prophylaxis of JCV infection or development of PML have been demonstrated.

Treatment Recommendations

Treating Disease

No effective specific therapy has been established for JCV infection or PML. Survival in HIV-infected adults with PML has substantially improved during the post-cART era, with an increase in median survival from 14 to 64 weeks.27,33 A CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 at PML diagnosis is associated with improved survival, and use of cART after diagnosis of PML is strongly associated with improved survival.33 Thus, the main approach to treatment involves optimizing cART to reverse the immunosuppression that interferes with normal host response to this virus (AII).

A number of agents have been proposed or reported anecdotally as more specific treatments for PML, but none has proven effective after greater scrutiny or more extensive study. In a randomized, open-label trial of intravenous (IV) and intrathecal cytosine arabinoside34 and a non-randomized, open-label trial of IV cidofovir,35 neither drug was effective in producing clinical improvement of PML in HIV-infected adults, and neither agent is routinely recommended (BIII). Immunomodulatory approaches such as interferon-alfa (IFN-α) also have been described in case reports in HIV-infected adults; however, none have been studied in a controlled clinical trial and, in one analysis, these approaches did not provide any benefit beyond that with cART.36 Thus, they are also not routinely recommended (BIII). Anecdotal reports have been published about use of mirtazapine (a 5-HT(2a) receptor antagonist) plus either cidofovir or cytosine-arabinoside, with tapering of immunosuppressive therapy, to treat PML in HIV-uninfected adults who developed the disease while on immunosuppressive therapy. While the results with this adjunctive treatment are encouraging, there is insufficient evidence to recommend it at this time.31,37,38 In addition, recent in vitro studies have shown that CMX001, an investigational oral ester form of cidofovir, suppresses JCV replication in human brain cell cultures, and the compound may be evaluated in clinical trials in the near future.39,40 No therapeutic trials have been conducted in children. 

Monitoring and Adverse Events, Including IRIS

Patients may develop PML before starting cART or may manifest PML as an unmasking IRIS event after immune reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Neurologic stability or improvement and prolonged survival are associated with reduced levels of JCV DNA in CSF, appearance of JCV-specific antibody in CSF, and presence of JCV-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in patients receiving cART.41

After cART is initiated and CD4 counts rise, some patients will experience neurologic improvement; however, reports have documented worsening neurologic manifestations after initiation of ART.26 Clinical worsening may represent the natural history of PML in these patients. However, this apparent worsening may also be a paradoxical reaction from inflammatory responses to JCV potentiated by cART-induced immune reconstitution, called IRIS,26,42-44 examples of which have occurred in children.45 The underlying mechanism of cART-associated PML IRIS is controversial. One hypothesis is that a reduction in inhibitory cytokines (e.g., IFN-α and interleukin-12) after cART promotes JCV re-activation within the brain or increases trafficking of JCV-infected peripheral lymphocytes into the brain.46 Another possibility is that JCV infection occurring coincidental to cART initiation results in a beneficial inflammatory response, with lack of disease progression.46 This may be particularly likely in cases of perinatal HIV infection, because JCV acquisition is most common early in life.  The overall prevalence of PML-associated IRIS in children is unknown. Inflammatory PML should be suspected in cART-treated children with advanced HIV who show acute neurologic deterioration and contrast-enhancing demyelinating lesions on MRI, even if immunological and virological measures show improvement in HIV status.22 Retrospective data suggest that early and prolonged treatment with steroids may be beneficial for some patients in whom immune reconstitution with ART activates an inflammatory response to JCV. No clinical trial data exist, however, to substantiate the anecdotal evidence.47

Managing Treatment Failure

PML remission with cART may take several weeks, and no criteria exist that define progression of disease. A working definition of treatment failure used for HIV-infected adults is continued clinical worsening and continued detection of CSF JCV DNA at 3 months (see Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults).48 In addition, lack of JCV antibody response or JCV-specific cytotoxic T-cell immune responses are associated with poor prognosis. In some patients, PML worsens despite cART, either because of IRIS or because of the natural history of PML. Whichever is the case, cART should be continued. If cART fails to suppress HIV RNA or to increase the CD4 count, then attention should focus on modifying and optimizing the cART (AII). In HIV-infected children responding well to cART but with continued worsening of PML, an expert in pediatric HIV infection should be consulted for consideration of investigational therapies. 

Preventing Recurrence

On the basis of its role in reversing the disease, the main measure for preventing PML recurrence is an effective cART regimen that suppresses HIV viremia and preserves or restores CD4-defined immune function (AII).

Discontinuing Secondary Prophylaxis

No methods for secondary prophylaxis of JCV infection or PML have been proven effective. 

References

  1. Astrom KE, Mancall EL, Richardson EP, Jr. Progressive multifocal leuko-encephalopathy; a hitherto unrecognized complication of chronic lymphatic leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease. Brain. Mar 1958;81(1):93-111. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13523006.
  2. Stolt A, Sasnauskas K, Koskela P, Lehtinen M, Dillner J. Seroepidemiology of the human polyomaviruses. J Gen Virol. Jun 2003;84(Pt 6):1499-1504. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12771419.
  3. White MK, Khalili K. Pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy--revisited. J Infect Dis. Mar 1 2011;203(5):578-586. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21227915.
  4. Boldorini R, Allegrini S, Miglio U, et al. Serological evidence of vertical transmission of JC and BK polyomaviruses in humans. J Gen Virol. May 2011;92(Pt 5):1044-1050. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307224.
  5. Rodrigues C, Pinto D, Medeiros R. Molecular epidemiology characterization of the urinary excretion of polyomavirus in healthy individuals from Portugal--a Southern European population. J Med Virol. Aug 2007;79(8):1194-1198. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17596822.
  6. Gu ZY, Li Q, Si YL, Li X, Hao HJ, Song HJ. Prevalence of BK virus and JC virus in peripheral blood leukocytes and normal arterial walls in healthy individuals in China. J Med Virol. Aug 2003;70(4):600-605. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12794723.
  7. Gosert R, Kardas P, Major EO, Hirsch HH. Rearranged JC virus noncoding control regions found in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patient samples increase virus early gene expression and replication rate. J Virol. Oct 2010;84(20):10448-10456. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686041.
  8. Berger JR, Houff SA, Major EO. Monoclonal antibodies and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. MAbs. Nov-Dec 2009;1(6):583-589. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20073129.
  9. Focosi D, Kast RE, Maggi F, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Petrini M. Sialic acid moieties and 5-HT2a: two faces of the same receptor for JC virus? J Clin Virol. Sep 2008;43(1):132-133. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18534904.
  10. Carson KR, Focosi D, Major EO, et al. Monoclonal antibody-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in patients treated with rituximab, natalizumab, and efalizumab: a Review from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project. Lancet Oncol. Aug 2009;10(8):816-824. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647202.
  11. Major EO. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients on immunomodulatory therapies. Annu Rev Med. 2010;61:35-47. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19719397.
  12. Gea-Banacloche JC. Rituximab-associated infections. Semin Hematol. Apr 2010;47(2):187-198. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20350666.
  13. Dankner WM, Lindsey JC, Levin MJ, Pediatric ACTGPT. Correlates of opportunistic infections in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus managed before highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jan 2001;20(1):40-48. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11176565.
  14. Nesheim SR, Kapogiannis BG, Soe MM, et al. Trends in opportunistic infections in the pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras among HIV-infected children in the Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study, 1986-2004. Pediatrics. Jul 2007;120(1):100-109. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17606567.
  15. Ciuta ST, Boros S, Napoli PA, Pezzotti P, Rezza G. Predictors of survival in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Italy, 1983 to 1995. AIDS Patient Care STDS. Aug 1998;12(8):629-637. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15468435.
  16. Araujo AP, Pereira HS, Oliveira RH, Frota AC, Esperanca JC, Duarte F. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Arq Neuropsiquiatr. Mar 1997;55(1):122-125. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9332571.
  17. Robinson LG, Chiriboga CA, Champion SE, Ainyette I, DiGrado M, Abrams EJ. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and cidofovir in an adolescent infected with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). J Child Neurol. Jan 2004;19(1):35-38. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15032381.
  18. Wilmshurst JM, Burgess J, Hartley P, Eley B. Specific neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in children. J Child Neurol. Sep 2006;21(9):788-794. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16970887.
  19. Shah I, Chudgar P. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) presenting as intractable dystonia in an HIV-infected child. J Trop Pediatr. Dec 2005;51(6):380-382. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927949.
  20. Berger JR, Scott G, Albrecht J, Belman AL, Tornatore C, Major EO. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-1-infected children. AIDS. Aug 1992;6(8):837-841. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1418781.
  21. Liptai Z, Papp E, Barsi P, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an HIV-infected child. Neuropediatrics. Feb 2007;38(1):32-35. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17607602.
  22. Oberdorfer P, Washington CH, Katanyuwong K, Jittamala P. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV-Infected Children: A Case Report and Literature Review. Int J Pediatr. 2009;2009:348507. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20041004.
  23. Engsig FN, Hansen AB, Omland LH, et al. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study. J Infect Dis. Jan 1 2009;199(1):77-83. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19007313.
  24. Antinori A, Cingolani A, Lorenzini P, et al. Clinical epidemiology and survival of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from the Italian Registry Investigative Neuro AIDS (IRINA). J Neurovirol. 2003;9 Suppl 1:47-53. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12709872.
  25. Koralnik IJ. New insights into progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Curr Opin Neurol. Jun 2004;17(3):365-370. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15167073.
  26. Berenguer J, Miralles P, Arrizabalaga J, et al. Clinical course and prognostic factors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. Apr 15 2003;36(8):1047-1052. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12684918.
  27. Lima MA, Bernal-Cano F, Clifford DB, Gandhi RT, Koralnik IJ. Clinical outcome of long-term survivors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Nov 2010;81(11):1288-1291. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20710013.
  28. Angelini L, Pietrogrande MC, Delle Piane MR, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a child with hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome and review of the literature. Neuropediatrics. Oct 2001;32(5):250-255. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11748496.
  29. Mamidi A, DeSimone JA, Pomerantz RJ. Central nervous system infections in individuals with HIV-1 infection. J Neurovirol. Jun 2002;8(3):158-167. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12053271.
  30. Bossolasco S, Calori G, Moretti F, et al. Prognostic significance of JC virus DNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Clin Infect Dis. Mar 1 2005;40(5):738-744. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15714422.
  31. Focosi D, Marco T, Kast RE, Maggi F, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Petrini M. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: what's new? Neuroscientist. Jun 2010;16(3):308-323. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479473.
  32. Cinque P, Koralnik IJ, Gerevini S, Miro JM, Price RW. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-1 infection. Lancet Infect Dis. Oct 2009;9(10):625-636. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19778765.
  33. Drake AK, Loy CT, Brew BJ, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: epidemiology and predictive factors for prolonged survival. Eur J Neurol. Apr 2007;14(4):418-423. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388991.
  34. Hall CD, Dafni U, Simpson D, et al. Failure of cytarabine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 243 Team. N Engl J Med. May 7 1998;338(19):1345-1351. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9571254.
  35. Marra CM, Rajicic N, Barker DE, et al. A pilot study of cidofovir for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS. AIDS. Sep 6 2002;16(13):1791-1797. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12218391.
  36. Geschwind MD, Skolasky RI, Royal WS, McArthur JC. The relative contributions of HAART and alpha-interferon for therapy of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS. J Neurovirol. Aug 2001;7(4):353-357. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11517416.
  37. Vulliemoz S, F. Lurati-Ruiz, et al. Favourable outcome of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in two patients with dermatomyositis." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77(9): 1079-82. 2006. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2077730/
  38. Owczarczyk K, Hilker R, Brunn A, Hallek M, Rubbert A. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in a patient with sarcoidosis-successful treatment with cidofovir and mirtazapine. Rheumatology (Oxford). May 2007;46(5):888-890. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17389659.
  39. Jiang ZG, Cohen J, Marshall LJ, Major EO. Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (CMX001) suppresses JC virus replication in human fetal brain SVG cell cultures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Nov 2010;54(11):4723-4732. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20823288.
  40. Gosert R, Rinaldo CH, Wernli M, Major EO, Hirsch HH. CMX001 (1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir) inhibits polyomavirus JC replication in human brain progenitor-derived astrocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. May 2011;55(5):2129-2136. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21402853.
  41. Giudici B, Vaz B, Bossolasco S, et al. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: effects on cerebrospinal fluid markers of JC virus replication and immune response. Clin Infect Dis. Jan 2000;30(1):95-99. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10619739.
  42. Safdar A, Rubocki RJ, Horvath JA, Narayan KK, Waldron RL. Fatal immune restoration disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: impact of antiretroviral therapy-associated immune reconstitution. Clin Infect Dis. Nov 15 2002;35(10):1250-1257. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410486.
  43. Cinque P, Koralnik IJ, Clifford DB. The evolving face of human immunodeficiency virus-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: defining a consensus terminology. J Neurovirol. 2003;9 Suppl 1:88-92. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12709878.
  44. D'Amico R, Sarkar S, Yusuff J, Azar E, Perlman DC. Immune reconstitution after potent antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39(4):347-350. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454900.
  45. Nuttall JJ, Wilmshurst JM, Ndondo AP, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a child with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jul 2004;23(7):683-685. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15247614.
  46. Du Pasquier RA, Koralnik IJ. Inflammatory reaction in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: harmful or beneficial? J Neurovirol. 2003;9 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):25-31. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12709868.
  47. Tan K, Roda R, Ostrow L, McArthur J, Nath A. PML-IRIS in patients with HIV infection: clinical manifestations and treatment with steroids. Neurology. Apr 28 2009;72(17):1458-1464. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129505.
  48. Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, et al. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. Apr 10 2009;58(RR-4):1-207; quiz CE201-204. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19357635.

Back to Top