Clinical Trials


Fortovase (Saquinavir) Given With Low-Dose Ritonavir, Zidovudine, and Lamivudine to HIV-Positive Pregnant Women During and After Pregnancy and to Their Newborns

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: May 17, 2012
Last Verified: May 2012
History of Changes


The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe to give saquinavir-SGC (SQV) combined with low-dose ritonavir (RTV) plus zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) to HIV-positive pregnant women and to see if it is safe to give 3TC and ZDV to their newborns. Another purpose is to see what levels of SQV, low-dose RTV, ZDV, and 3TC are found in mothers and what levels of ZDV and 3TC are seen in newborns. Another purpose of this study is to see whether SQV passes from mother to newborn and if it passes at a level that is safe for the newborn.

Although ZDV has been able to reduce the rate of transmission of HIV from mother to child, it may be possible to reduce it further by using a combination of anti-HIV drugs. This study adds SQV (a protease inhibitor [PI]) with RTV (another PI) and 3TC (a reverse transcriptase inhibitor) to the mother's ZDV regimen.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections

Drug : Ritonavir
Drug : Saquinavir
Drug : Lamivudine
Drug : Zidovudine
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I Trial of the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Fortovase (Saquinavir-SGC) Co-Administered With Low Dose (Ritonavir) RTV, ZDV and 3TC in HIV Seropositive Pregnant Women During Gestation and Postpartum, and in Their Infant's Post-Maternal Dosing

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Enrollment: 24
Study Completion Date: April 2003

Detailed Description:

Although administration of ZDV to mother-infant pairs has dramatically reduced perinatal HIV infection, the goal is to reduce it further to less than 2%. In order to achieve this, combination strategies need to be developed for 2 purposes: 1) to reduce the perinatal transmission rate to goal levels; and 2) to provide other combination therapies for HIV-infected mothers whose virus has become resistant to ZDV, who have a very high viral load, or who have previously transmitted HIV while on ZDV. This study adds 3TC (another reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and SQV (a protease inhibitor [PI]) [AS PER AMENDMENT 08/15/00: with low-dose RTV (another PI)] to the mother's ZDV regimen.
During the antepartum period, mothers receive SQV with [AS PER AMENDMENT 08/15/00: low-dose RTV plus] ZDV and 3TC. At onset of active labor, mothers receive loading doses of each of the study drugs, then receive study drugs for 12 weeks postpartum on the same schedule as during the antenatal period. Within 12 hours of delivery, infants begin receiving 3TC and ZDV and continue until 6 weeks of age. Mothers are followed until 12 weeks postpartum and babies are followed until 6 months of age. [AS PER AMENDMENT 02/09/99: For maternal dosing, 1 Combivir tablet (containing 3TC and ZDV) may be administered in place of the individual agents 3TC and ZDV. Patients who prematurely discontinue study treatment should continue to be followed for the duration of the study.]



Ages Eligible for Study: 13 Years and older  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria
Patients may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are HIV-positive.
  • Are 14 to 32 weeks pregnant.
  • Are at least 13 years old (need consent of parent or guardian if under 18).

  • Exclusion Criteria
    Patients may not be eligible for this study if they:
  • Cannot take ZDV, 3TC, or higher doses of RTV. Women who are able to tolerate low doses of RTV may be eligible.
  • Are pregnant with more than 1 baby. (This study has been changed so that a patient pregnant with more than 1 baby is not eligible.)
  • Have pregnancy complications or have medical problems that put pregnancy at risk.
  • Have an active opportunistic (HIV-related) infection and/or serious bacterial infection at study entry.
  • Have chronic diarrhea.
  • Abuse alcohol or drugs.
  • Do not have access to a participating clinic or are not willing to be followed at the same clinic for the duration of the study.
  • Have received certain antiretroviral (anti-HIV) drugs or are taking certain medications. (This study has been changed to increase enrollment. The eligibility criterion in earlier versions was more restrictive, and has been changed to include women receiving SQV [with or without RTV], 3TC, and ZDV for longer than 3 weeks if their pre-entry viral load is 400 copies/ml or less OR if they have a significant reduction in viral load within 90 days of the pre-entry visit.)
  • Plan to breast-feed.

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00000920


United States, California
Los Angeles County - USC Med Ctr
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90033
United States, Colorado
Univ of Colorado Health Sciences Ctr
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80262
United States, District of Columbia
Howard Univ Hosp
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20060
United States, Florida
Univ of Miami / Jackson Memorial Hosp
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136
Univ of Miami (Pediatric)
Miami, Florida, United States, 33161
United States, Illinois
Univ of Illinois College of Medicine / Pediatrics
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
United States, Louisiana
Tulane Univ / Charity Hosp of New Orleans
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 701122699
Univ Hosp
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Michigan
Children's Hosp of Michigan
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48201
United States, New Jersey
Univ of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey / Univ Hosp
Newark, New Jersey, United States, 071032714
United States, New York
Columbia Presbyterian Med Ctr
New York, New York, United States, 10032
United States, North Carolina
Duke Univ Med Ctr
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 277103499
United States, South Carolina
Med Univ of South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 294253312
United States, Washington
Children's Hospital & Medical Center / Seattle ACTU
Seattle, Washington, United States, 981050371
Puerto Rico
Univ of Puerto Rico / Univ Children's Hosp AIDS
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 009365067

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)


Study Chair: Carmen Zorrilla
Study Chair: Arlene Bardeguez
Study Chair: Jane Pitt
Study Chair: Russell Van Dyke
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00000920   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG 386  
  PACTG 386  
Study First Received: November 2, 1999  
Last Updated: May 17, 2012  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Drug Therapy, Combination
Pregnancy Complications
Anti-HIV Agents

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Zidovudine processed this data on March 27, 2020
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