Clinical Trials


A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerance of Combination Anti-HIV Drug Therapy (Indinavir, Lamivudine, and Zidovudine) in HIV-Positive Pregnant Women and Their Infants

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: May 1, 2012
Last Verified: May 2012
History of Changes


The purpose of this study is to determine if a combination anti-HIV drug treatment regimen of indinavir plus lamivudine (3TC) plus zidovudine (ZDV) is effective in treating HIV and in reducing the chances of passing HIV from mother to child. This study will also examine if this combination is well tolerated by HIV-positive pregnant women and if a combination of 3TC plus ZDV is safe for newborns.

Previous studies in adults and children have shown that indinavir plus 3TC plus ZDV can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood. Most HIV-positive pregnant women usually take ZDV to treat HIV and to reduce the chances of giving HIV to their babies. The combination of drugs in this study may be more effective than ZDV alone.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections

Drug : Indinavir sulfate
Drug : Lamivudine
Drug : Zidovudine
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Phase I Trial of the Safety, Tolerance, and Pharmacokinetics of Oral Indinavir Co-Administered With Lamivudine (3TC) and Zidovudine (ZDV) in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women During Gestation and Post Partum, and in Their Infants Post Maternal Dosing

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Enrollment: 24
Study Completion Date: March 2003

Detailed Description:

Despite the dramatic reduction of perinatal HIV transmission following the administration of ZDV to mothers and infants, new, more effective strategies are needed. An increasing number of women may require combination antiretroviral therapy for their own disease because they may be resistant to ZDV, may have high viral loads, or may have previously transmitted HIV to an infant while on ZDV monotherapy. The initiation of triple combination therapy, including a protease inhibitor indinavir, during gestation may be the most effective in reducing maternal virus load prior to delivery, thereby potentially benefitting both mother and child.
Antepartum (until active labor): Indinavir plus 3TC plus ZDV. Intrapartum (active labor until cord clamping): 3TC plus ZDV. Postpartum (after cord clamped to 12 weeks): Indinavir plus 3TC plus ZDV.
3TC plus ZDV as soon as oral intake is tolerated (preferably within 12 hours of birth) and continuing for 6 weeks.
[AS PER AMENDMENT 1/27/99: For maternal dosing, one Combivir tablet bid can be substituted for the individual formulation of 3TC and ZDV. For mothers who receive Combivir during the antepartum period, Combivir is held during labor and delivery, and the separate formulations of ZDV and 3TC are used. Patients who prematurely discontinue study treatment should continue to be followed on study for the duration of the study.]



Ages Eligible for Study: 13 Years and older  
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria
Women may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are HIV-positive.
  • Have been pregnant for 14-28 weeks (are in your 1st or 2nd trimester).
  • Have a normal ultrasound exam when they are screened for the study.
  • Are able to drink 6 glasses of water a day throughout the study.
  • Are at least 13 years old (need consent of parent or guardian if under 18).

  • Exclusion Criteria
    Women will not be eligible for this study if they:
  • Cannot take 3TC or ZDV.
  • Have an active opportunistic (HIV-associated) or bacterial infection at study entry.
  • Have chronic diarrhea.
  • Have epilepsy or cancer.
  • Are pregnant with more than 2 children (triplets, etc.)
  • Have risk factors for premature birth, or other problems with their pregnancy.
  • Have any immediate life-threatening illness.
  • Have severe anemia or other illness for which they require blood products.
  • Have a history of chronic liver or kidney disease.
  • Plan to breast-feed.

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00000944


United States, California
San Francisco, California, United States, 94143
United States, Massachusetts
HMS - Children's Hosp. Boston, Div. of Infectious Diseases
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
United States, New York
Jacobi Med. Ctr.
Bronx, New York, United States, 10461
Montefiore Med. Ctr. - AECOM
Bronx, New York, United States

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)


Study Chair: Diana Wara
Study Chair: Yvonne Bryson
Study Chair: Ruth Tuomala
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00000944   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG 358  
  PACTG 358  
Study First Received: November 2, 1999  
Last Updated: May 1, 2012  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Drug Therapy, Combination
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Disease Transmission, Vertical
Anti-HIV Agents

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Indinavir processed this data on March 27, 2020
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