Clinical Trials


A Study to Evaluate the Effects of Azithromycin on MAC Disease Prevention in HIV-Positive Patients

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: September 28, 2013
Last Verified: September 2013
History of Changes


This study is designed to find out whether HIV-positive patients whose immune systems have improved after receiving anti-HIV treatment should take azithromycin to prevent Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. This study also examines the possibility of putting off MAC prevention treatment in patients who respond well to anti-HIV drug therapy.

Azithromycin is approved for the prevention of MAC disease in people with HIV and low CD4 cell counts. However, some people who have taken azithromycin have been found to carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria (germs that can grow despite the presence of drugs used to kill them). It is not known whether the risks associated with taking azithromycin outweigh the risk of getting MAC disease.

Condition Intervention
Mycobacterium Avium-intracellulare Infection
HIV Infections

Drug : Azithromycin

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Prophylaxis for Disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Complex Disease and Bacterial Pneumonia Versus Deferred Prophylaxis in HIV-Infected Patients Who Experience Rebound in CD4+ Cell Count Due to Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Enrollment: 850
Study Completion Date: July 2000

Detailed Description:

The need for MAC prophylaxis in advanced HIV disease is recognized. Prophylactic therapy is complicated, however, due to drug toxicity, potential drug interactions, patient noncompliance with multiagent regimens, microbial drug resistance, and high treatment costs. This study assesses the feasibility of deferring MAC prophylaxis in patients whose CD4+ cell counts rebound in response to antiretroviral therapy.
In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients are randomized to receive azithromycin weekly or matching placebo. Patients are switched to open-label azithromycin if they have an average CD4+ cell count less than 50 cells/mm3 on 2 consecutive counts obtained at least 48 hours apart (preferably no more than 60 days).
[AS PER AMENDMENT 10/23/97: SUBSTUDY CPCRA 054: A subset of participants of CPCRA 048 have oropharyngeal swabs taken at baseline and 4 months after randomization. Antibiotic susceptibility tests are then performed on isolates of S. pneumoniae.] [AS PER AMENDMENT 9/3/99: Participants in protocol version 3.0 are followed for data collection purposes every 4 months for 18 months until January 31, 2001. Data collection includes CD4 cell counts, viral RNA measurements, macrolide susceptibility in MAC isolates, and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates from bacterial pneumonia episodes.]



Ages Eligible for Study: 13 Years and older  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria
You may be eligible for this study if you:

  • Are HIV-positive.
  • Have 2 CD4 counts over 100 cells/mm3 at least 30 days apart.
  • Have a history of CD4 counts under 50 cells/mm3.
  • Are at least 13 years old (need consent if under 18).
  • Are in reasonably good health.
  • Are expected to live for at least 6 months.
  • Are receiving anti-HIV medications at study entry.

  • Exclusion Criteria
    You will not be eligible for this study if you:
  • Have/had MAC disease.
  • Have been unable to take azithromycin in the past.
  • Are on any medications that act against MAC.

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00000947


United States, California
Community Consortium / Jon Kaiser Wellness Ctr
San Francisco, California, United States, 94110
Community Consortium / UCSF
San Francisco, California, United States, 94110
United States, Colorado
Denver CPCRA / Denver Public Hlth
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80204
United States, District of Columbia
Washington Reg AIDS Prog / Dept of Infect Dis
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20422
United States, Georgia
AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30308
United States, Illinois
AIDS Research Alliance - Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60657
United States, Louisiana
Louisiana Comm AIDS Rsch Prog / Tulane Univ Med
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
LSMUC / Lions Clinic
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Michigan
Catherine McAuley Health Ctr
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48201
Wayne State Univ - WSU/DMC / Univ Hlth Ctr
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48201
Henry Ford Hosp
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48202
United States, New Jersey
Southern New Jersey AIDS Cln Trials / Dept of Med
Camden, New Jersey, United States, 08103
North Jersey Community Research Initiative
Newark, New Jersey, United States, 07103
United States, New Mexico
Partners in Research / New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 87131
United States, New York
Harlem AIDS Treatment Grp / Harlem Hosp Ctr
New York, New York, United States, 10037
United States, Oregon
The Research and Education Group
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97210
United States, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia FIGHT
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107
Saint Joseph's Hosp
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107
United States, Virginia
Richmond AIDS Consortium / Div of Infect Diseases
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23298

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)


Study Chair: Wafaa El-Sadr
Study Chair: William Burman
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00000947   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: CPCRA 048  
Study First Received: November 2, 1999  
Last Updated: September 28, 2013  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Antitubercular Agents
Drug Resistance, Microbial
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Time Factors
Anti-HIV Agents
Pneumonia, Bacterial
Streptococcus pneumoniae

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Communicable Diseases
Mycobacterium Infections
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection
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