Clinical Trials


Treatment of Chronic Cryptosporidiosis in AIDS Patients

This study has been terminated
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Genetics Institute

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: January 17, 2000
Last updated: December 13, 2016
Last Verified: June 2003
History of Changes


The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe and effective to add interleukin-12 (IL-12) to the standard drug combination (paromomycin plus azithromycin) used to treat cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Doctors would like to find out if the combination of IL-12, paromomycin, and azithromycin is more effective than paromomycin and azithromycin alone.

Cryptosporidiosis is a type of opportunistic (AIDS-related) infection seen in HIV-positive patients as their immune systems weaken. It is caused by a parasite that invades the intestinal tract, and it can cause watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, an upset stomach, or a fever. Antibiotics (paromomycin and azithromycin) are usually used to treat cryptosporidiosis. In this study, doctors will look at the effectiveness of using IL-12. IL-12 is a type of protein naturally produced by certain types of cells of the immune system and is believed to be important for immune function. Doctors hope that IL-12 can help boost the immune system in fighting cryptosporidiosis.

Condition Intervention
HIV Infections

Drug : Interleukin-12
Drug : Paromomycin sulfate
Drug : Azithromycin

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Pilot, Proof-of-Concept, Dose-Escalating Trial of Recombinant Human Interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) Versus Placebo Along With Paromomycin and Azithromycin for Chronic Cryptosporidiosis in AIDS

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 16
Study Completion Date: June 2005
Estimated Primary Completion Date: June 2005 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Detailed Description:

Cryptosporidium parvum, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a frequent cause of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Highly effective antiparasitic treatment for this infection is not currently available. Paromomycin and azithromycin have some efficacy and have been used in combination in a small number of patients. Immune reconstitution with highly active antiretroviral therapy appears to be the most effective therapy, but this is not possible for all patients. Interferon gamma expression is strongly associated with control of cryptosporidiosis, and IL-12 is the cytokine primarily responsible for stimulation of interferon gamma expression in vivo. It is hoped that treatment with recombinant human IL-12 can result in stimulation of an intestinal cytokine response in AIDS patients with cryptosporidiosis and that response combined with chemotherapy can lead to the elimination of detectable numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts from the stools.
All patients receive azithromycin and paromomycin, and patients are randomized to add either IL-12 or placebo. IL-12 (or placebo) injections are given twice a week. Patients take their study medications for 4 weeks. During this time, they will be asked to record bowel movements and any symptoms they experience. Patients return to the clinic at least twice a week to receive IL-12 (or placebo) injections. At Weeks 2 and 4, patients are seen by one of the principal investigators. Blood samples are obtained for viral load measurements and CD4 count, as well as routine urinalysis. Patients undergo upper endoscopy with jejunal biopsy and colonoscopy with ileal biopsy between Weeks 2 and 4 of therapy for assays of intestinal cytokine expression. A final clinic visit occurs 12 weeks post-therapy for a physical exam and blood tests.



Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria
Patients may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are HIV-positive.
  • Have a CD4 cell count below 150 cells/mm3.
  • Have been on stable anti-HIV therapy that includes at least 2 nucleoside analogues for at least 4 weeks.
  • Have chronic diarrhea (3 bowel movements a day that are loose or watery, for 5 days per week over 3 weeks).
  • Test positively for Cryptosporidium.
  • Are at least 18 years old.
  • Agree to use effective methods of birth control.

  • Exclusion Criteria
    Patients will not be eligible for this study if they:
  • Have any other active opportunistic (AIDS-related) infection.
  • Require intravenous (IV) fluids.
  • Have a history of an allergy to certain medications, such as colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF or GM-CSF) or a type of antibiotic.
  • Are pregnant.

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00001128


United States, Texas
Pablo C. Okhuysen
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Genetics Institute


Principal Investigator: A. Clinton White
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00001128   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIDS R001  
Study First Received: January 17, 2000  
Last Updated: December 13, 2016  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Interleukin-12 processed this data on July 02, 2020
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