Clinical Trials


Male Circumcision and HIV Rates in Kenya

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: April 23, 2003
Last updated: May 28, 2008
Last Verified: September 2007
History of Changes


The Luo tribe of Kisumu, Kenya, does not traditionally practice male circumcision (MC). This study will work with the Luo tribe to test the effectiveness of MC on reducing the risk of HIV infections in young men.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections

Procedure : male circumcision
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Trial of Male Circumcision to Reduce HIV Incidence

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures

  • HIV incidence [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  • surgical complications [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • incidence of other sexually transmitted diseases [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  • behavioral risks [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

Enrollment: 2887
Study Start Date: February 2002
Study Completion Date: December 2006
Primary Completion Date: October 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Circumcised immediately

Procedure: male circumcision
Placebo Comparator: Delayed Circumcision
Men who were randomized to delayed circumcision were scheduled to be offered male circumcision 2 years after their randomization.
Procedure: male circumcision

Detailed Description:

Since 1989, numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant association between lack of male circumcision (MC) and risk for HIV infection through heterosexual intercourse. These results have led to calls for male circumcision to be considered as an additional HIV prevention strategy. However, there is a consensus among the international health community that a randomized controlled trial of MC is needed to control for possible confounding factors. Additionally, known risks associated with MC need further investigation. This study will assess the effectiveness of male circumcision in reducing HIV incidence and will evaluate complications of the MC procedure, changes in sexual behavior following circumcision, and the biological mechanisms by which the foreskin may increase HIV susceptibility. The study will be conducted in Kisumu, Kenya, where the Luo tribe is the main ethnic group and less than 10% of adult men are circumcised.
Uncircumcised men aged 18 to 24 years old will be offered voluntary HIV counseling and testing. HIV negative men will be asked to enroll in the study. All study participants will be interviewed to obtain socio-demographic information and assess behavioral risk factors. Participants will be examined for significant medical conditions. All men will be counseled in strategies to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Consenting men will be randomly assigned to either the treatment (circumcised) arm or the control (uncircumcised) arm of the study. After circumcision, men will be monitored for complications. They will be counseled to abstain from sex until healing is complete. Follow-up visits will occur every 6 months for 2 years. Uncircumcised men will be offered circumcision at the end of follow-up.
The primary study endpoints will be HIV incidence and surgical complications. Additional outcomes will be the incidence of other sexually transmitted diseases and behavioral risks. Additional laboratory studies of foreskin tissue will evaluate the number and density of specialized cells rich in HIV receptors in order to illuminate the biological mechanisms by which presence of foreskin may increase HIV susceptibility.



Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 24 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: Male  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes  


Inclusion Criteria

  • HIV uninfected and willing to be tested
  • Live in Kisumu District, Kenya
  • Uncircumcised but willing to be circumcised
  • At least one sexual partner in the 12 months prior to study entry

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00059371


UNIM Clinic
Kisumu, Kenya

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)


Principal Investigator: Robert C. Bailey, PhD, MPH University of Illinois at Chicago
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: Carolyn Williams, Chief Epidemiology, NIAID Identifier: NCT00059371   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: 5U01AI050440-02  
Study First Received: April 23, 2003  
Last Updated: May 28, 2008  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Male circumcision
HIV acquisition
Sexually transmitted infection
HIV Seronegativity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections processed this data on July 20, 2018
This information is provided by