Clinical Trials


Safety of Saquinavir and High Doses of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in Children With HIV

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: June 4, 2004
Last updated: May 17, 2012
Last Verified: May 2012
History of Changes


The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of increased doses of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and saquinavir (SQV) in HIV infected children who are failing their current antiretroviral regimen

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections

Drug : Lopinavir/ritonavir
Drug : Saquinavir
Phase 1
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetic Study of High Dose Lopinavir/Ritonavir With or Without Saquinavir in HIV-Infected Pediatric Subjects Previously Treated With Protease Inhibitors

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures

  • Life-threatening adverse events attributable to study drugs
  • dose-limiting toxicity, defined as adverse events of Grade 3 or greater attributable to study drug and require dose reduction or interruption but are not judged to be life-threatening by the protocol team
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Pharmacological success, defined as achieving an inhibitory quotient (IQ) of 15 after 2 weeks on high-dose LPV/r without life-threatening or dose-limiting toxicity
  • virologic success, defined by optimal response (undetectable viral load) at Week 24 or adequate response (0.75 log drop in viral load or more) from baseline to Week 24
  • immunologic success, defined as a CD4% increase from baseline of 5% or more points by Week 24
  • minimal criterion for overall success, defined as a 0.75 log drop in viral load or more or 5% point increase in CD4% from baseline to Week 24
  • virologic failure, defined as an inadequate (less than 0.75 log drop in viral load) or suboptimal (confirmed viral load of greater than 400 copies/ml) response at Week 24

Enrollment: 26
Study Completion Date: December 2006

Detailed Description:

Since current drugs cannot cure HIV infection, lifelong therapy is required. Development of drug resistance is common, with 30% to 80% of patients with initial viral load decreases following a potent anti-HIV regimen experiencing regimen failure within the first year of therapy. Dose intensification (increasing dosing of treatment medications) has been used successfully in pediatric oncology. Dose intensification in HIV infected patients may overcome resistance and, as similarly observed in cancer, may result in a greater rate of viral inhibition, maximizing the degree and durability of viral suppression. This study will evaluate dose intensification in HIV infected children and adolescents who are failing their current antiretroviral regimen and have significant genotypic and phenotypic resistance.
Participants in this 3-step study will have previously undergone genotypic resistance testing as part of their regular clinical care. Participants will have phenotypic resistance testing done at screening or within 6 months prior to study entry. Participants in this study will have either a genotypic profile with at least 4 of the required protease mutations or phenotypic resistance to LPV that is at least fivefold greater than wild type while on a failing regimen within 6 months of study screening.
In Step 1, Group 1 participants will be randomly assigned to either a drug regimen without a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a drug regimen with an NNRTI for Group 2 participants. Participants and their doctors will work with study investigators to select the best treatment regimen possible. All participants in the study will receive LPV/r as part of their drug regimens. Participants in Group 1 will take a higher dose of LPV/r than participants in Group 2 because NNRTIs lower LPV/r levels in the blood.
At Week 2, participants will undergo a 12-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) test to evaluate the drug levels in their blood. If LPV/r levels are not high enough to control HIV and the participant can swallow tablets, hard gel capsules, or the contents of hard gel capsules with food or milk, the participant will begin taking SQV as part of his or her drug regimen and enter Step

  1. After two weeks of taking SQV, participants will again undergo PK testing at Week 6. Based
on these test results, the dose of SQV will then be increased, decreased, or maintained. Participants who do not add SQV to their regimen will continue taking LPV/r for the remainder of the study and stay in Step 1. If the PK test indicates SQV blood concentrations are sufficient, the participant will remain in Step 2. If the PK test indicates SQV blood concentrations are too low, the SQV dose will be increased and the participant will enter Step 3. After 2 weeks of taking elevated doses of SQV, participants will undergo PK testing at Week 10. If the PK test indicates that SQV blood concentrations are too high, the SQV dose will be decreased. At Week 14, participants who receive a reduced SQV dose will again undergo PK testing to verify that SQV blood concentrations are optimal.
Participants will have study visits at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8, then every 4 weeks through the end of the study at Week 48. Study visits will include a physical exam, health history assessment, and blood collection. Blood collection for PK studies will occur at selected visits. Study visits at Weeks 2 and 12 will include an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).



Ages Eligible for Study: 2 Years to 17 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV infected
  • HIV RNA viral load greater than 5,000 copies/ml
  • At least 6 months of continuous therapy with a protease inhibitor (PI) prior to study entry
  • No change in antiretroviral therapy since genotypic resistance testing
  • Genotypic resistance testing indicating a primary protease mutation at position 32, 47, 48, 50, 82, or 84 and at least three other mutations in positions 10, 20, 24, 30, 32, 33, 36, 46, 47, 48, 50, 53, 54, 71, 73, 77, 82, 84, or 90 OR phenotypic resistance testing, within 6 months of screening while on a failing regimen, indicating at least a fivefold increase in LPV as compared to wild type HIV
  • Parent or legal guardian willing to provide informed consent
  • If sexually active, agree to use acceptable methods of contraception
  • Have a telephone, pager, or other method of reliable communication with study staff
  • Able and willing to swallow study medications

Exclusion Criteria:
  • Any drug toxicity greater than Grade 3 at screening
  • Certain abnormal laboratory values
  • Acute opportunistic or serious bacterial infection requiring treatment
  • Chemotherapy for active cancer
  • Any significant diseases (other than HIV infection) that may, in the opinion of the investigator, interfere with the study
  • Require certain medications
  • History of heart problems
  • Family history of prolonged QTc-Interval Syndrome or prolonged QTc-interval at study entry
  • Pregnancy or breastfeeding

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00084058


United States, Alabama
UAB, Dept. of Ped., Div. of Infectious Diseases
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35233
United States, California
Long Beach Memorial Med. Ctr., Miller Children's Hosp.
Long Beach, California, United States, 90801
San Francisco, California, United States, 94143-0105
United States, Illinois
Chicago Children's CRS
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60614
United States, Louisiana
Tulane/LSU Maternal/Child CRS
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112-2699
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins Hosp. & Health System - Dept. of Peds., Div. of Infectious Diseases
Baltimore, Maryland, United States
United States, Massachusetts
HMS - Children's Hosp. Boston, Div. of Infectious Diseases
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
United States, New York
Jacobi Med. Ctr.
Bronx, New York, United States, 10461
Harlem Hosp. Ctr. NY NICHD CRS
New York, New York, United States, 10037
Nyu Ny Nichd Crs
New York, New York, United States
Strong Memorial Hospital Rochester NY NICHD CRS
Rochester, New York, United States, 14642-0001
United States, North Carolina
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27705
United States, Tennessee
Memphis, Tennessee, United States, 38105-2794
Puerto Rico
Univ. of Puerto Rico Ped. HIV/AIDS Research Program CRS
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00936-5067
San Juan City Hosp. PR NICHD CRS
San Juan, Puerto Rico

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)


Study Chair: Peter L. Havens, MD Medical College of Wisconsin
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00084058   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: P1038  
  PACTG P1038  
Study First Received: June 4, 2004  
Last Updated: May 17, 2012  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Dose Intensification
Pharmacokinetic Sampling
Treatment Experienced

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Saquinavir processed this data on March 27, 2020
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