Clinical Trials


A Study of Anal Cancer Development in HIV Infected People

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: April 6, 2005
Last updated: April 15, 2014
Last Verified: April 2014
History of Changes


The purpose of this study is to compare the development of abnormal cell growth or cancer in the anal region of individuals who are receiving one of two different anti-HIV treatment strategies.

HIV Infections
Anus Neoplasms

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Anal Dysplasia: A Substudy of a Large, Simple Trial Comparing Two Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (The SMART Study)

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures

  • Time to high-grade anal dysplasia or anal cancer
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to anal cancer
  • time to low-grade or high-grade anal dysplasia
  • time to anal HPV infection
  • time to anal HPV infection with a specific strain, for types 16, 18, or 31
  • time to cervical HPV infection
  • time to cervical HPV infection with a specific strain, for types 16, 18, or 31
  • time to high-grade anal dysplasia
  • time from low-grade anal dysplasia to normal

Enrollment: 560
Study Start Date: February 2005
Study Completion Date: March 2006
Primary Completion Date: March 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Detailed Description:

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common viral infection among men and women. Individuals with HPV are at risk for anal dysplasia, a condition that may lead to anal cancer. It has been observed that HIV progresses more rapidly in individuals coinfected with HPV and HIV, compared to people with either disease alone. Studies that have investigated the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the progression of anal dysplasia have been contradictory and inconclusive. The role of CD4 count and HIV suppression and their contributions to the progression of anal disease needs to be determined. This trial is a substudy of a study of management of antiretroviral therapy (SMART). In the SMART study, patients will participate in one of two strategies: a drug conservation (DC) strategy and a viral suppression (VS) strategy. Participants in the DC group will stop or defer HAART, then receive episodic HAART treatment for the minimum time needed to maintain a CD4 cell count of at least 250 cells/mm3. Participants in the VS group will receive HAART to maintain a viral load as low as possible, regardless of CD4 count. This study will compare the times to development of high-grade anal dysplasia or anal cancer in participants who are currently enrolled in the SMART study.
Patients will participate in this substudy and the main SMART study at the same time. At the baseline visit, participants will undergo an anal swab; some female participants will have a cervical swab as well. Participants will provide a detailed sexual history including sexually transmitted infections, a history of anal-related conditions, and a history of alcohol and recreational drug use. These procedures will be repeated at each annual follow-up visit. Some participants may undergo additional anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy. Participants will be followed until they develop high-grade anal dysplasia or anal cancer or when the SMART study closes, whichever comes first.



Ages Eligible for Study: 13 Years and older  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria:

  • Coenrollment in the SMART study
  • Normal anal cytology result. If baseline anal cytology is abnormal, high-resolution anoscopy must be performed and specimens must be obtained.
  • Parent or guardian willing to provide informed consent, if applicable

Exclusion Criteria:
  • Current or prior history of anal or cervical cancer
  • Permanent or irreversible bleeding disorder that would interfere with biopsy of the
anal canal

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00107679


United States, California
LA Gay & Lesbian Community Service Ctr., Lamba Med. Group CRS
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90028
Castro-Mission Health Ctr. CRS
San Francisco, California, United States, 94114
United States, Colorado
Univ. of Colorado Health Science Ctr. CRS
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80204-4507
Eastside Family Health Ctr. CRS
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80205
United States, District of Columbia
Washington DC VAMC, Washington Regional AIDS Program, Infectious Diseases CRS
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20422
United States, Florida
Univ. of Florida, Div. of Infectious Diseases CRS
Jacksonville, Florida, United States, 32206
United States, Massachusetts
CRI-Boston CRS
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
United States, Michigan
Henry Ford Hosp. CRS
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48202
United States, New York
Harlem Hospital Ctr./Columbia University CRS (Gordin CTU)
New York, New York, United States, 10037-1802
United States, Oregon
Kaiser Immune Deficiency Clinic of Portland CRS
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97227
Oregon Health & Sciences Univ. Internal Medicine (L-475) CRS
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97239
United States, Pennsylvania
Temple Univ. School of Medicine CRS
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19140
United States, Texas
Houston AIDS Research Team CRS
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)


Study Chair: Calvin Cohen, MD, MSc Community Research Initiative of New England
More Information

More Information

Additional Information:

Click here for more information on CPCRA 065

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00107679   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: CPCRA 065G  
Study First Received: April 6, 2005  
Last Updated: April 15, 2014  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Treatment Experienced
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Papillomavirus, Human

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Anus Neoplasms processed this data on March 27, 2020
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