Clinical Trials


SWEET: Once Daily Truvada Versus Twice Daily Combivir for the Treatment of HIV Infection

This study has been completed
Gilead Sciences

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
Gilead Sciences Identifier

First received: May 5, 2006
Last updated: June 30, 2008
Last Verified: June 2008
History of Changes


This study will investigate whether the simplified regimen of a once daily fixed dose combination of Truvada (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [DF]) will be associated with a reduced rate of adverse events, seen with long term use of antiretrovirals, as well as improved adherence compared to a twice daily fixed dose combination of Combivir.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections

Drug : zidovudine and lamivudine (Combivir®)
Drug : emtricitabine and tenofovir DF
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 3, Open Label, Randomised, Parallel Group Study to Compare the Effect on Prevention and Resolution of Treatment Related Adverse Events of a Simplified, Once Daily Regimen of a Fixed Dose Combination Tablet of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir DF Versus Twice Daily co-Formulated Zidovudine and Lamivudine (Combivir®) or Zidovudine and Lamivudine, in Virologically Suppressed, HIV Infected Patients Taking Efavirenz

Further study details as provided by Gilead Sciences:

Primary Outcome Measures

  • The primary endpoint for the study is a change from baseline in absolute haemoglobin at Week 24.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • The secondary endpoints in this study include: Change from baseline in absolute haemoglobin at Week 48
  • Lipids profile: change from baseline in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), TC/HDL, and triglyceride (TG)
  • Quality of life (QoL)
  • Measures of treatment adherence (Medication Adherence Self-Report Survey [MASRI] questionnaire)
  • Measures of regimen intrusiveness (HIS and Brief Medication Questionnaire [BMQ])
  • Changes in markers of body composition from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans (a sub-study)
  • HIV RNA: proportion of patients with HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) < 400 copies/mL; proportion of patients with HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL and change from baseline in log10 copies/mL at Weeks 24 and 48
  • CD4: change from baseline in CD4 counts
  • Treatment adherence and acceptability
  • Use of lipid lowering drugs (number of patients and duration of use)
  • Adverse events (AEs): AEs will be coded and the coded terms will be used to summarize the count of patients with any event, intensity of each event (highest intensity will be used if an event is reported more than once by a patient) and relationship to:
  • Other lab tests: results at baseline and changes from baseline

Enrollment: 220
Study Start Date: October 2004
Study Completion Date: October 2007
Primary Completion Date: June 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Detailed Description:

The success of HAART is largely dependant on an individual's ability to adhere strictly to an antiretroviral regimen. Regimen characteristics that affect adherence include dosing frequency and pill burden. Several studies have shown improved adherence with lower pill burden and a meta-analysis of the virological outcome in relation to pill burden has shown a significant correlation between lower pill burden and better virological outcome. A systematic review of studies across a range of medical specialties demonstrated that once daily therapy improves adherence relative to more frequent dosing although statistical significance was not demonstrated relative to twice daily regimens.



Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients of either sex aged > 18 years.
  2. HIV positive.
  3. Stable antiretroviral therapy consisting of efavirenz (EFV) given with Combivir® or zidovudine (AZT) + lamivudine (3TC) for at least 6 months.
  4. Patients with viral loads < 50 copies/ml on last 2 consecutive tests and < 400 copies/ml for > 3 months.
  5. Patients requiring a lipid lowering agent must be established on a stable dose/frequency for at least 12 weeks prior to Baseline and be expected to continue on stable dose/frequency for the duration of the study.
  6. Negative serum pregnancy test (females of childbearing potential only).
  7. Willingness to use effective contraception (such as barrier or coil methods) by both males and females while on study treatment and for 30 days following study drug completion.
  8. The ability to understand and sign a written informed consent form, which must be obtained prior to initiation of study procedures.

  • Exclusion Criteria:
  • Pregnant or lactating female.
  • History of AZT monotherapy.
  • Use of anabolic steroids, with the exception of testosterone for documented hypogonadism, within 90 days prior to the Baseline visit.
  • Documented parvovirus infection.
  • Use of erythropoietin within the last six weeks.
  • Patients who have had a blood transfusion in the last six weeks.
  • Karnofsky score < 50.
  • Prior history of significant renal disease.
  • Prior history of osteopenia/osteoporosis.
  • Creatinine clearance < 60mL/min.
  • AST/ALT > 5 x upper limits of normal (ULN).
  • Previous adefovir dipivoxil or cidofovir therapy.
  • Known history of resistance (including primary resistance) to any of the study medications - tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), AZT, 3TC, or EFV.
  • Patients receiving ongoing therapy with any of the following (administration of any of the following medications must be discontinued at least 30 days prior to the Baseline visit and for the duration of the study period):
    • Nephrotoxic agents
    • Probenecid
    • Systemic chemotherapeutic agents (i.e. cancer treatment medications)
    • Systemic corticosteroids
    • Interleukin 2 (IL 2)
    • Drugs that interact with efavirenz
    • Dihydroergotamine
    • Ergotamine
    • Midazolam
    • Triazolam
    • Cisapride
    • Rifampin
    • Ergonovine
    • Methylergonovine
  • Patients with known hypersensitivity to any of the study medications or excipients.
  • Active, serious infections (other than HIV-1 infection) requiring parenteral antibiotic therapy within 15 days prior to Screening.
  • Patients who are currently taking part in any other clinical trial or have taken part in a clinical trial of a new chemical entity within 1 month prior to Screening.
  • Any other clinical condition or prior therapy that, in the opinion of the investigator, would make the patient unsuitable for the study or unable to comply with the dosing requirements.
  • Patients with cancer (except basal cell carcinoma).
  • Co-infection with hepatitis B virus

    contacts and locations

    Contacts and Locations

    Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

    Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00323544


    United Kingdom
    Gilead Sciences
    Cambridge, United Kingdom, CB1 6GT

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    Gilead Sciences


    Study Director: Claudio Avila, MD Gilead Sciences, Ltd.
    More Information

    More Information

    Responsible Party: Cham Herath, Gilead Sciences Identifier: NCT00323544   History of Changes  
    Other Study ID Numbers: GS-MC-164-0111  
    Study First Received: May 5, 2006  
    Last Updated: June 30, 2008  

    Keywords provided by Gilead Sciences:

    HIV 1
    HIV 1 infection

    Additional relevant MeSH terms:
    Communicable Diseases
    HIV Infections
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    Lamivudine, zidovudine drug combination processed this data on July 20, 2018
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