Clinical Trials


Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Rakai, Uganda

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier

First received: January 23, 2007
Last updated: August 23, 2007
Last Verified: August 2007
History of Changes


Circumcision in HIV unifected men may reduce the likelihood of becoming infected with HIV, reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men, not engender increases in sexual risk behaviors, and be acceptable to men as a procedure for preventing HIV. The purpose of this study is to evaluate circumcision in HIV uninfected men in terms of safety and ability to prevent HIV infection.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Herpesvirus 2, Human
Genital Diseases, Male

Procedure : Adult male circumcision
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Randomized Trial of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention, Rakai, Uganda

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures

  • HIV acquisition
  • safety of circumcision
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • sexual risk behaviors
  • acceptability

Enrollment: 5000
Study Start Date: August 2002
Study Completion Date: December 2006

Detailed Description:

South Africa has one of the most severe and fast-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Adult male circumcision may be an effective preventive measure to slow the spread of HIV and other STIs. This study will assess the efficacy of circumcision in HIV uninfected men in preventing HIV and STI acquisition.
This study will have two stages. In the first stage, 200 men will be enrolled into a study of the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of circumcision. Frequent postoperative follow-up will occur to determine rates of healing and complications. After assessment of those enrolled in Stage 1, Stage 2 enrollment will begin. Stage 2 will determine the efficacy of circumcision in preventing HIV acquisition. In both stages, HIV uninfected men will be randomly assigned to have either immediate circumcision or possible circumcision 2 years following Stage 2 study entry. The participants not receiving immediate circumcision will be offered circumcision after completion of 2 years of follow-up study, provided there is evidence of the efficacy of this procedure at that time. If efficacy is still unknown after 2 years of follow-up, participants will be given the option of circumcision at the completion of the trial.
Postoperative follow-up visits will be scheduled between 24 to 48 hours, 5 to 9 days, and 4 to 6 weeks. At each postoperative visit, participants will be questioned about symptoms suggestive of complications, and the area operated on will be inspected. Participants will be asked about resumption of sexual intercourse, and those who have resumed sexual intercourse will be asked about condom use. Study visits will be also conducted regarding risk behaviors and symptoms of STIs, and these will occur sometime between Weeks 4 to 6, and at Months 6, 12, and 24 post-enrollment. At each study visit, assessment of circumcision status and penile pathology; blood, urine, and penile swabs collection; and HIV testing will occur, and counseling and health education will be provided.



Ages Eligible for Study: 15 Years to 49 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: Male  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes  


Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV uninfected
  • Willing to receive HIV results
  • Willing to be circumcised
  • Parent or guardian willing to provide informed consent if applicable
  • Hemoglobin of 8 grams/dl or less
  • Intend to stay in Rakai, Uganda, for at least 1 year and are available for follow-up for 1 year

Exclusion Criteria:
  • Already circumcised or partially circumcised
  • Anatomical abnormality of the penis (e.g., hypospadias, severe phimosis) that may put the participant at risk if circumcised
  • Medical conditions that require therapeutic circumcision
  • Medical condition that contraindicates surgery or use of local anesthesia

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00425984


Rakai Health Sciences Program, P.O. Box 279
Kalisizo Town, Rakai, Uganda

Sponsors and Collaborators

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC)


Principal Investigator: Ronald H. Gray, MD Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00425984   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: U1AI171-1-02  
  U1 AII 171-01-02  
  U1 AI 171-1-02  
Study First Received: January 23, 2007  
Last Updated: August 23, 2007  

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Male circumcision
Sexually transmitted infections
Sexual risk behaviors
Adult males
Haemophilus ducreyi
Human papillomavirus
HIV seronegativity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Genital Diseases, Male processed this data on July 20, 2018
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