Clinical Trials


Effect of HIV Infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) on Bone Homeostasis (OPG-2)

This study has been completed
Emory University

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Emory University Identifier

First received: November 24, 2009
Last updated: October 15, 2015
Last Verified: October 2015
History of Changes


Advances in HAART have been a huge success story in the management of HIV infection. However, serious metabolic complications including osteoporosis and bone fractures are increasingly been seen with HAART, and the responsible mechanisms remain poorly elucidated.

The skeleton continually regenerates through homeostatic bone remodeling. Osteoclasts the cells responsible for bone resorption form under the influence of the key osteoclastogenic cytokine Receptor- Activator of NF-KB (RANKL). The osteoclastogenic and pro-resorptive activities of RANKL are moderated by its physiological decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). Increase in the ratio of RANKL to OPG accelerates the rate of osteoclastic bone resorption leading to osteoporosis.

The investigators' preliminary studies have now demonstrated that in an animal model of HIV/AIDS, the HIV-1 Transgenic rat, the development of osteoporosis is recapitulated as observed in human patients. Furthermore, the investigators found that B cell expression of OPG is significantly downregulated, concurrent with a significant upregulation in production of RANKL.

HIV Infection

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Effect of HIV Infection and HAART on Bone Homeostasis

Further study details as provided by Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Emory University:

Primary Outcome Measures

  • To correlate serum and B cell and T cell OPG and/or RANKL production in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients, with indices of bone turnover and structure and with viral load. [ Time Frame: During entry visit ]

Enrollment: 120
Study Start Date: October 2010
Study Completion Date: October 2015
Primary Completion Date: May 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

HIV-seropositive, HIV seronegative
No intervention - biologic samples were collected from both HIV positive and HIV negative subjects
Treatment naive subjects
HIV-seropositive subjects naive to antiretroviral therapy. HIV-seronegative subjects otherwise healthy.

Detailed Description:

The investigators hypothesize that "immunological disruption of B cell number and/or function, may play a key causal role in the bone loss associated with HIV/AIDS, by driving a "switch" from OPG production to overproduction of RANKL". The investigators propose to determine the role of perturbations in B and T cells on OPG and RANKL production and on bone turnover.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of changes in BMD (DXA), and B cell and T cell function in HIV seronegative/seropositive subjects matched by known risk factors for osteoporosis. Serum will be collected for quantitation of total OPG and RANKL, and for biochemical markers of bone turnover (CTx, and TRAP5b), specific and sensitive markers of osteoclast activity, and for osteocalcin and P1NP, specific and sensitive markers of bone formation by commercial ELISAs. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) will be isolated and total and percentage frequency and absolute number (/mL) of B cells (CD19+) and T cells (CD3) and their subsets (CD4 and CD8). B cells (CD19) and T cells (CD3 and CD4 and CD8) will be immunomagnetically purified and OPG and RANKL mRNA and protein production quantitated by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively. As a secondary endpoint, B cells will be fractionated into subsets based on differential expression of the markers CD10, CD21 and CD27 and OPG and RANKL production quantitated by in each subset by intracellular staining and FACS analysis.



Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 50 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes  
Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sample  

Study Population

Healthy (HIV sero-negative) volunteers and otherwise healthy antiretroviral treatment naïve HIV-1 sero-positive patients, age >18 years.


Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Healthy (sero-negative) volunteers and otherwise healthy treatment naïve HIV-1 sero-positive patient.
  2. Age >30<50 years and segregated into age and gender ranges as described above in section 3.2 (15 subjects per stratification based on Power Test).
  3. Ability and willingness of subject or legal guardian/representative to give written informed consent.
  4. Antiretroviral naivety.
  5. No CD4 T-cell counts requirement.
  6. Absence of non-HIV related active immunological or bone disorders such as;
    • Bone marrow or organ transplantation
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, crohn's disease)
    • Multiple Myeloma
    • Osteogenesis imperfect
    • Osteomalacia
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Paget's disease
    • Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  7. Laboratory values obtained within 90 days prior to study entry:
    • Hemoglobin >9.4 g/dl
    • Creatinine < 2 mg/dl
    • AST (SGOT) < 2 x ULN
    • ALT (SGPT) < 2 x ULN

  • Exclusion Criteria:
  • Physical or biochemical evidence or a medical history of malignancy.
  • Currently (within the past 8 weeks) taking any medication with known influence on the immune or skeletal system (e.g. immune modulation therapy, glucocorticoids, steroid hormones, bisphosphonates).
  • The patient is not fully ambulatory.
  • Pregnancy or breast feeding. Exclusion criteria are primarily centered on immunological aspects with bone related aspects secondary. This is because in our model immunological function is proximal to bone function. Consequently, use of vitamin D or calcium supplementation will not be exclusion criteria, but will be added as covariates in our analysis.

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    Contacts and Locations

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    Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01020045


    United States, Georgia
    Grady Infectious Diseases Program Clinic
    Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30308

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    Emory University
    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)


    Principal Investigator: Ighovwerha Ofotokun, MD, MSc Emory University
    More Information

    More Information

    Additional Information:

    Dysregulated B Cell Expression of RANKL and OPG Correlates with Loss of Bone Mineral Density in HIV Infection

    Responsible Party: Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Associate Professor of Medicine, Emory University Identifier: NCT01020045   History of Changes  
    Other Study ID Numbers: IRB00027210  
    Study First Received: November 24, 2009  
    Last Updated: October 15, 2015  

    Keywords provided by Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Emory University:


    Additional relevant MeSH terms:
    Communicable Diseases
    HIV Infections
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    Bone Diseases, Metabolic processed this data on June 01, 2020
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