Efficacy and Safety of Concomitant Use of Nevirapine and Rifampicin With HIV-TB ("NVP")
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
National AIDS Control Organisation
Information provided by (Responsible Party)
S.K.SHARMA, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
First received: March 1, 2013
Last updated: March 25, 2013
Last Verified: March 2013
History of Changes
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Nevarapine and Rifampicin vs Efavirenz and Rifampicin in antiretroviral naive patients co-infected with HIV and TB and to investigate whether Rifampicin co-administration in clinical practice leads to a clinically relevant decrease of Nevirapine plasma concentrations in Indian patients co-infected with HIV and Tuberculosis and to characterize drug-associated toxicities (especially hepatic).
Drug : Nevirapine
Drug : Efavirenz
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Efficacy and Safety of Concomitant Use of Nevirapine and Rifampicin in Antiretroviral Naive Patients Co-infected With HIV and Tuberculosis in India.|
Further study details as provided by S.K.SHARMA, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi:
Primary Outcome Measures
Virological suppression at 48 weeks.
[ Time Frame: 5 years ]
All patients underwent a detailed physical examination. Their body weight and height will be measured and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin, complete blood counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fasting blood glucose, renal function tests, liver function tests, serum albumin, serum uric acid and routine urinalysis will be done for all patients. Patients will be assessed at day 14 after the start of ART, then at day 28, 42 and every 4 weeks thereafter through 48 weeks. A complete haemogram, liver and kidney function tests will be obtained at all these visits. CD4 counts will be measured at 8 weeks, 24 weeks and 48 weeks after the start of ART. HIV plasma viral load will be measured at baseline, at 24 weeks and at the end of 48 weeks only in the cases. Trough nevirapine concentrations were assessed at day 14, day 28, day 42 and day 180, 12 hours after the evening dose of nevirapine.
- Number of Participants with Adverse Events especially Hepatotoxicity as a measure of Safety.
[ Time Frame: 5 years ]
Drug associated toxicities specially hepatitis were assessed in the subjects by performing liver function tests every 4 weeks during follow-up.
|Study Start Date:||June 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||February 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Intervention 2: Nevirapine
HIV and Tuberculosis co-infected patients on standard dose nevirapine (Intervention) based ART and Rifampicin based ATT.
The regimen containing Nevirapine: 3TC/ZDV 150/300 mg 1 tablet BID + NEVIRAPINE 200 mg qD for 2 weeks then 200mg BID
Other Name: NEV-Nevirapine
Intervention 2: Efavirenz
HIV and Tuberculosis co-infected patients on standard dose Efavirenz(Intervention)based ART and Rifampicin based ATT.
The regimen containing Efavirenz: 3TC/ZDV 150/300 mg 1 tablet BID + EFAVIRENZ 600 mg qD
Other Name: EFV: Efavirenz
Drug interactions complicate concurrent treatment of HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
co-infection. Drug therapy for HIV and tuberculosis each consists of combined regimens with
three or four drugs. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most significant co-infection of HIV patients
in resource-limited settings. Application of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in co-infected
patients will require care providers who are appropriately trained in the use of ARV and TB
drugs. Over 40 million people worldwide are currently living with HIV/AIDS, of which 90% live
in the developing world, co-infected with TB. There are an estimated 12 million persons with
TB/HIV co-infection. According to UNAIDS estimates, 5 million people have acquired HIV/AIDS
in 2003. India is estimated to have 5.1 million HIV individuals by the end of 2002. TB is
among the most frequent HIV-related opportunistic infections in developing countries, and is
associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In India, there were estimated 1.85
million HIV individuals co-infected with HIV and TB. In patients infected with both HIV and
TB, the lifetime risk of developing the active tuberculosis has been estimated to be at least
60%, compared to approximately 10% in persons infected with TB who do not have HIV infection.
It is well established that HIV increases the risk for TB (acquisition, reactivation and
reinfection), alters its clinical presentation, and reduces survival compared to patients
with TB and no HIV infection. Multiple epidemiologic studies have shown that co-infection
with TB results in reduced survival, increased risk for opportunistic infections and
elevations in HIV replication. Increased HIV replication is attributed to activation of
latently infected cells and promotion of infection in uninfected lymphocytes and macrophages.
HIV genetic diversity is also increased in the presence of active TB infection. Mortality
rates in HIV-infected patients with TB are extraordinarily high in resource- limited
settings. Therefore, it is essential to treat patients with HIV and TB co-infection for both
infections. In India large numbers of HIV positive patients suffering with HIV/Tuberculosis
co-infection. However, limited data are available for concomitant use of Nevirapine and
Rifampicin in patients co-infected with HIV and Tuberculosis in India. No concrete data
available about whether or not Nevirapine and Rifampicin can be safely co-administered
without the plasma concentration of Nevirapine falling below therapeutic levels.
Rifamycins are frequently used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Rifamycins can interact with several antiretrovirals. In decreasing order of potency, rifampin, rifapentine and rifabutin have an inducing effect on drug metabolism mediated through cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors are metabolized through CYP3A4 and thus the plasma concentrations of these antiretrovirals may decrease in the presence of rifamycins. Additionally, the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are metabolized by CYP2B6. Drug-drug interactions may lead to suboptimal drug exposure, loss of viral suppression and selection of resistant HIV strains. Interactions between nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and rifamycins occur at the level of glucuronidation and amination, as was described between rifampin or rifabutin and zidovudine, but is not considered to be clinically significant.
Coinfection of HIV-1 and tuberculosis mainly concerns developing countries like India where both infections are epidemic. Access to antiretrovirals may be difficult in developing countries because of limited availability or high cost. To improve pricing and accessibility, generic antiretroviral agents are manufactured in countries such as Brazil, India, Thailand and South Africa. Fixed-dose combinations of these generic agents are widely used as well. The most often-used generic fixed-dose combination is a twice-daily regimen with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Fixed-dose combinations are attractive regimens for patient care. Adherence to therapy may be improved because of low pill burden and the reduced possibility of incorrect dosing. Furthermore, the fixed-dose combinations simplify drug logistics. Compact drug quantities facilitate storage and distribution to hospitals, pharmacies and patients. Important for resource constraint settings is that fixed-dose combinations make improvements in public health care management possible. With respect to treatment of HIV/tuberculosis-coinfected patients, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction may be expected when nevirapine and rifamycin are co-administered. Treatment with rifabutin is preferred because of a more favourable interaction profile, but in most developing countries rifabutin is not available or too expensive. Tuberculosis treatment with a regimen that includes rifampicin is usually the only option. Reports in the literature have shown decreases in nevirapine plasma concentrations ranging from 31% to 58%. Rifampicin plasma concentrations are not influenced by nevirapine. Low nevirapine plasma concentrations may negatively affect virological outcome of antiretroviral therapy. Previous studies have documented higher plasma concentrations of nevirapine in Thai patients compared with patients in other countries, suggesting that even though the concomitant use of rifampicin lowers the nevirapine levels considerable, still most patients would still retain nevirapine plasma concentrations above a concentration of 3.1mg/l. The present study will be performed to investigate whether rifampicin co-administration in clinical practice leads to a clinically relevant decrease of nevirapine plasma concentrations in North Indian patients co-infected with HIV/Tuberculosis.
|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years to 60 Years|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- HIV infection, documented by ELISA test
- Adult patients
- Patients co-infected with HIV and Tuberculosis
- Concomitant use of Nevirapine and Rifampicin in patients co-infected with HIV and Tuberculosis
- ART Naïve patients
- Allergy/hypersensitivity to any study drug(s).
- Prior history of documented drug-resistant TB.
- Patients with alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels more than five times the upper limit of normal.
- Chronic liver disease due to cirrhosis of liver, hepatitis B & C virus infection.
- Chronic alcoholic.
- Non-complaint patients.
- Migrant patients.
- Serious form of pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis e.g. severe haemoptysis and unconscious patients
- Concomitant diabetes mellitus.
- Patients on other immunosuppressive therapy.
- Malignancy other than Kaposi's Sarcoma requiring therapy.
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Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01805258
Locations Show More
|All India Institute of Medical Sciences|
|New Delhi, India, 110029|
Sponsors and CollaboratorsAll India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
National AIDS Control Organisation
|Principal Investigator:||Surendra K Sharma, MD, Ph.D||All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi|
|Responsible Party:||S.K.SHARMA, Professor and Head, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi|
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:||NCT01805258 History of Changes|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||SKS/NACO-1/2006-07|
|Study First Received:||March 1, 2013|
|Last Updated:||March 25, 2013|
Keywords provided by S.K.SHARMA, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi:India
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on June 01, 2020
This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov.