Clinical Trials


Bone Mineral Density Changes in HIV-positive Females With Osteopenia Switching to Raltegravir (RALBAT)

This study has been terminated
( Low enrollment )

Giovanni Di Perri

University of Turin, Italy
University of Milan

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
Giovanni Di Perri, University of Turin, Italy Identifier

First received: July 10, 2013
Last updated: October 14, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
History of Changes


Given the high prevalence of bone alteration in the course of HIV infection or antiretroviral treatment and the favourable properties of raltegravir the investigators designed this pilot randomized and controlled study. Adult female HIV-positive patients on successful treatment with tenofovir/emtricitabine plus atazanavir plus ritonavir will be randomized either to continue such a regimen or to switch to raltegravir plus atazanavir plus ritonavir. Bone mineral density changes will be compared in the two groups at 48 weeks: the hypothesis is that removing tenofovir and using tenofovir will increase bone mineral density at 48 weeks.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infection

Drug : raltegravir and atazanavir and ritonavir
Drug : tenofovir/emtricitabine and atazanavir and ritonavir
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Switching HIV-positive Women on Tenofovir/Emtricitabine Plus Boosted Atazanavir to RALtegravir Plus Boosted ATazanavir: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Investigating 48-weeks Changes in Bone Mineral Density

Further study details as provided by Giovanni Di Perri, University of Turin, Italy:

Primary Outcome Measures

  • Variations from baseline in DEXA-measured bone mineral density (t-score, spine and femur) [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • variations from baseline in CTX (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and OC (Osteocalcin) [ Time Frame: 24 and 48 weeks ]
  • To assess the variation in renal function [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    glomerular filtration rate, urinary markers of tubular dysfunction (nondiabetic glucosuria, altered resorption of phosphorus, hyperaminoaciduria, b2-micro-globuline excretion and abnormal uric acid excretion.) and urinary retinol binding protein
Other Outcome Measures:
  • Cholesterol changes at 48 weeks in the two arms [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Changes in Cholesterol levels in the two arms
  • Triglycerides changes in the two arms [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Changes in Tryglicerdies levels in the two arms
  • Glucose Fasting Levels changes in the two arms [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Changes in Glucose Fasting Levels in the two arms
  • Insulin changes in the two arms [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Changes in Insulin levels in the two arms
  • Parathyroid hormone changes in the two arms [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Changes in Parathyroid hormone levels in the two arms
  • Vitamine D (25-OH-Vitamine D) changes in the two arms [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]
    Changes in Vitamine D (25-OH-Vitamine D)levels in the two arms

Enrollment: 4
Study Start Date: September 2014
Study Completion Date: December 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2016 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: raltegravir
raltegravir and atazanavir and ritonavir
Drug: raltegravir and atazanavir and ritonavir

switch tenofovir/emtricitabine to raltegravir

Other Name:
  • Isentress (raltegravir)
  • Reyataz (atazanavir)
  • Norvir (ritonavir)

Active Comparator: tenofovir/emtricitabine
tenofovir/emtricitabine and atazanavir and ritonavir
Drug: tenofovir/emtricitabine and atazanavir and ritonavir

no change in antiretroviral treatment; patients will continue their regimen (tenofovir/emtricitabine and atazanavir and ritonavir)

Other Name:
  • tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada)
  • atazanavir (Reyataz)
  • ritonavir (norvir)

Detailed Description:

The objective is to assess the improvement in Bone Mineral Density and markers of bone turnover in women on TDF/FTC (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/ emtricitabine)+ ATV/r (atazanavir/ritonavir) in a switch arm (RAL (raltegravir) + ATV/r) vs. an unchanged arm (TDF/FTC + ATV/r).
The clinical hypothesis is that removing tenofovir (associated to a boosted PI, and therefore in the worst clinical scenario) in both pre-menopausal and menopausal women could be beneficial and being associated with reduced bone mineral density loss measured by DEXA (densitometry)scan scores and markers of bone turnover. The underlying mechanism is believed to be the reduction in hyper-phosphaturia induced by proximal tubular dysfunction: therefore measuring renal tubular markers and hormones involved in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis (such as vitamin D and parathormone) will explain the suspected mechanism.



Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 80 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adult HIV-positive female patients;
  • osteopenia (t-score from -1 to -2.5);
  • On antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir/emtricitabine and atazanavir/ritonavir (300/100 mg) for at least six months;
  • Plasma HIV RNA below 50 copies/ml since six months;
  • Premenopausal women: female patients at any phase of the reproductive period with regular menstrual cycles and normal FSH (< 25 ng/mL) That would probably exclude patients with ovarian or endocrinological dysfunctions. Pre and postmenopausal should be therefore well-characterized.
  • Women in menopausal period (the menopause was defined as 12 months of amenorrhoea without any pathological or physiological cause and using the endocrinological definition of ovary insufficiency (LH (Luteic hormone) >25ng/mL, FSH (follicule stimulating hormone)>25ng/mL and E2 (Estradiol)<30ng/mL).
  • Each premenopausal sexually active subject of child-bearing potential must agree to use a medically accepted method of contraception while receiving protocol-specified medication and for 3 months after stopping the medication.Medically accepted methods of contraception include condoms (male or female) with or without a spermicidal agent, diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide, medically prescribed IUD (intrauterine device), inert or copper-containing IUD, hormone-releasing IUD, systemic hormonal contraceptive, and surgical sterilization (eg, hysterectomy or tubal ligation).
  • Postmenopausal women are not required to use contraception.

Exclusion Criteria:
  • History or current evidence of any condition, therapy, laboratory abnormality or other circumstance that might confound the results of the study, or interfere with the patient's participation for the full duration of the study, such that it is not in the best interest of the patient to participate.
  • Documented resistance to Raltegravir or/and Atazanavir.
  • Patient with significant hypersensitivity or other contraindication to any of the components of the study drugs.
  • Patient has a current (active) diagnosis of acute hepatitis due to any cause
  • Patient with coinfection HIV/HBV (Human Hepatitis virus B)
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Osteoporosis (t-score less than 2.5).
  • Secondary endocrinological cause of low BMD (Bone mineral density)
  • Chronic steroid intake;
  • Chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min);
  • Concomitant use of bisphosphonate.

contacts and locations

Contacts and Locations

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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01902186


University of Milano
Milano, Italy
University of Torino
Torino, Italy

Sponsors and Collaborators

Giovanni Di Perri
University of Turin, Italy
University of Milan


Principal Investigator: Giovanni Di Perri, MD, PhD University of Turin, Italy
More Information

More Information

Responsible Party: Giovanni Di Perri, Full professor of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Italy Identifier: NCT01902186   History of Changes  
Other Study ID Numbers: RALBAT  
Study First Received: July 10, 2013  
Last Updated: October 14, 2018  

Keywords provided by Giovanni Di Perri, University of Turin, Italy:


Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Atazanavir Sulfate
Raltegravir Potassium processed this data on June 02, 2020
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