Clinical Trials

MainTitle

Pilot Study to Describe Immune Responses of Healthy Women Following Immunization With Varicella Zoster Virus Vaccine (KAVI-VZV-001)

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor
University of Toronto

Collaborator
Kenyan AIDS Vaccine Initiative - Institute of Clinical Research (KAVI-ICR)
University of Nairobi
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
Dr Walter Jaoko, University of Nairobi

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier
NCT02514018

First received: June 29, 2015
Last updated: October 14, 2016
Last Verified: October 2016
History of Changes
Purpose

Purpose

The re-activating nature of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) may allow life long boosting when used as a vaccine vector in conjunction with HIV to generate durable immunity systemically and at the mucosa. This study aims to characterize mucosal immunity before and after vaccination with a commercial live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine with respect to immune activation state, mucosal homing properties and VZV-specific effector immune responses in healthy women at low risk for HIV acquisition.

Condition Intervention Phase
Healthy

Biological : Live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Official Title: A Pilot Study to Characterize the Immune Response Induced by a Commercial Varicella Zoster Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adult Females in Nairobi, Kenya.

Further study details as provided by Dr Walter Jaoko, University of Nairobi:

Primary Outcome Measures

  • Change in the median frequency of cervical CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+T cells after VZV-vaccination as a measure of immune activation [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
    Comparison of the change in the median (Interquartile range - IQR) frequency of cervical CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+T cells between 1) Baseline and 3 months after (for the delayed group), and 2) Before and after 3 months of VZV vaccination (immediate and delayed groups).
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Composite measures of immune activation observed in mucosal tissues [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
    Comparison of the change in the median (IQR) expression of activation markers such as CD38, CD69, Ki67 and HLA-DR in mucosal T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) between 1) Baseline and 3 months after (for the delayed group), and 2) Before and after 3 months of VZV vaccination (immediate and delayed groups)
  • Composite measures of mucosal homing marker and HIV co-receptors observed in mucosal tissues [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
    Comparison of the change in the median (IQR) expression of α4β7 and CCR5 in mucosal CD4+T cells between 1) Baseline and 3 months after (for the delayed group), and 2) Before and after 3 months of VZV vaccination (immediate and delayed groups)
  • Mucosal level of inflammation (including IL-1β, IL-6 and IL8) [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
  • Composite measures of immune activation observed in blood [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
    Comparison of the change in the median (IQR) expression activation markers such as CD38, CD69, Ki67 and HLA-DR in systemic T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) between 1) Baseline and 3 months after (for the delayed group), and 2) Before and after 3 months of VZV vaccination (immediate and delayed groups)
  • Composite measures of mucosal homing marker and HIV co-receptors observed in blood [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
    Comparison of the change in the median (IQR) expression of α4β7 and CCR5 in systemic CD4+T cells between 1) Baseline and 3 months after (for the delayed group), and 2) Before and after 3 months of VZV vaccination (immediate and delayed groups).
  • Plasma level of inflammation (including IL-1β, IL-6 and IL8) [ Time Frame: 3 months after VZV-vaccination ]
  • Frequency and function of mucosal VZV-specific immune cells (including CD8+ and CD4+ T cell subsets) [ Time Frame: Longidudinally througout the study (up to 12 months) ]
  • Concentration of mucosal VZV-specific antibodies (IgG and IgA) [ Time Frame: Longidudinally througout the study (up to 12 months) ]
  • Frequency and function of systemic VZV-specific immune cells (including CD8+ and CD4+ T cell subsets) [ Time Frame: Longidudinally througout the study (up to 12 months) ]
  • Concentration of systemic VZV-specific antibodies (IgG and IgA) [ Time Frame: Longidudinally througout the study (up to 12 months) ]
Other Outcome Measures:
  • Seroprevalence of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) [ Time Frame: At Screening Phase (week 0) ]
  • Seroprevalence of Herpes Virus-2 (HSV-2) [ Time Frame: At Screening Phase (week 0) ]
  • Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) [ Time Frame: At Screening Phase (week 0) ]
  • Seroprevalence of Epstein Barr (EBV) [ Time Frame: At Screening Phase (week 0) ]
  • Correlation between the expression of immune activation markers in blood and mucosal tissues [ Time Frame: Longidudinally througout the study (up to 12 months) ]
  • Correlation between mucosal VZV-specific immune responses and mucosal immune activation [ Time Frame: Longidudinally througout the study (up to 12 months) ]
  • Acceptability and feasibility of mucosal sampling assessed by participant questionnaires [ Time Frame: At study termination - week 50 (+/- 3 weeks) ]

Enrollment: 45
Study Start Date: September 2015
Estimated Study Completion Date: July 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date: January 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Arms Assigned Interventions
Other: Immediate Group
Live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine (≥ 19,400 Plaque-forming unit - PFU) administered as a single-dose at day 0
Biological: Live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine

Commercial vaccine used to prevent shingles

Other Name:
  • shingles vaccine
  • chickenpox vaccine
  • zoster vaccine
  • Zostavax® (Merck)

Other: Delayed Group
Live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine (≥ 19,400 PFU) administered as a single-dose at day 84 (+/- 3 days)
Biological: Live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine

Commercial vaccine used to prevent shingles

Other Name:
  • shingles vaccine
  • chickenpox vaccine
  • zoster vaccine
  • Zostavax® (Merck)

Detailed Description:

An ideal HIV vaccine should be able to induce an effector specific immune response at the mucosal site which serves as the portal of HIV entry. The use of a persistent replicating viral vector such as Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) has great potential to assemble this specific response. Live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus has been used as a vaccine worldwide for over 25 years and has a well-described safety profile. However, its immunogenicity data in the African population are lacking.
The general objective of this study will be to measure the magnitude and kinetics of the effector immune response and immune activation induced by live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in a population of Kenyan women. Specifically, the study will measure immune activation in both cervical and rectal mucosae in the context of VZV-effector responses after vaccination and compare the observed immune activation in mucosal tissues and in blood.
A total of 44 healthy women in Nairobi, aged 18-50 years will be recruited into the study, after obtaining their written informed consent. Eligibility to participate in the study will depend on results of laboratory tests, review of medical history, physical examination and answers to questions about HIV risk behaviours.
The study will assess immune responses to both immediate and delayed administration of live-attenuated virus varicella-zoster vaccine in VZV-seropositive individuals. Participants will be randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 will receive a single dose of the vaccine at day 0 and Group 2 at day 84. The participants will be followed for a period of 9-12 months after receiving the vaccine.

Eligibility

Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 50 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes  

Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

    1. Healthy females, as assessed by a medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests;
    2. Aged at least 18 years on the day of screening and no greater than 50 years on the day of the first vaccination.
    3. VZV-seropositive, as assessed by the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System (VIDAS) assay.
    4. Ability to comply with the study requirements and available for follow-up for the planned duration of the study.
    5. In the opinion of the Principal Investigator or designee, the volunteer has understood the information provided and signed the consent document.
    6. Willing to undergo HIV testing, HIV counseling and to receive HIV test results three times during the study.
    7. For women with potential to become pregnant, willing to use effective contraception or barrier methods, such as oral, patch, injectable, implant, ring contraceptives or intrauterine device to avoid pregnancy during the study (spermicide are not allowed).


Exclusion Criteria:

    Any relevant abnormality on history or examination that, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator or designee, is clinically significant, and/or:
    1. A high risk for HIV-acquisition defined by the experience of any of the follow situations:
        1. Had unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a known HIV-1-infected person, a person known to be at high risk for HIV or a casual partner (i.e., no continuing, established relationship) within the previous 6 months;
        2. Engaged in sex work for money or drugs within the previous 6 months;
        3. Used injection drugs in the last 12 months;
        4. Abuse of illicit or prescribed drugs, including alcohol;
        5. Acquired one of the following sexually transmitted infection: chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in the last 12 months;
        6. More than 1 sexual partner within the last 6 months;
        7. New sexual partner within the last 3 months.
      1. Persistent or recurrent bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis unresponsive to therapy (2 consecutive attempts by study team).
      2. Confirmed HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection.
      3. Any clinically significant acute or chronic medical condition that is considered progressive or, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator or designee, would make the volunteer unsuitable for the study (active or underlying diabetes, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, malignancy, neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, renal, hepatic, respiratory, auto-immune diseases, psoriasis, primary and acquired immunodeficiency status and rectal problems).
      4. Significant laboratory abnormalities, including coagulation (International Normalised Ratio- INR <1.0 or > 1.5).
      5. A positive pregnancy test or breast-feeding at screening; for the participants with reproductive potential, unwilling to use an effective method of preventing pregnancy during the study.
      6. Receipt of vaccine within the previous 2 months or planned receipt at any time until 6 months after vaccination with live-attenuated VZV vaccine.
      7. Receipt of blood transfusion or blood products within the previous 6 months.
      8. Participation in another interventional clinical trial currently or within the previous 3 months.
      9. History of severe or very severe local or systemic reactogenicity events after vaccination, history of severe or very severe allergic reactions, or history of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction to neomycin.
      10. History of toxic shock syndrome.
      11. Confirmed diagnosis of acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection (spontaneous clearance leading to natural immunity, indicated by antibodies to core + antigens, is not an exclusion criterion); confirmed diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.
      12. Immunosuppressive medications 30 days before or during the study period.
      13. Major psychiatric illness including any history of schizophrenia or severe psychosis, bipolar disorder, suicidal attempt or ideation in the previous 3 years.
      14. Contra-indication for undergoing a biopsy due to bleeding diathesis, haemorrhoids,
      mucosal infection at the biopsy site, medication that interfere with clotting (e.g. warfarin or heparin) - both clinical and laboratory.

    contacts and locations

    Contacts and Locations

    Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

    Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02514018

    Locations

    Kenya
    KAVI-ICR, University of Nairobi
    Nairobi, Kenya

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    University of Toronto
    Kenyan AIDS Vaccine Initiative - Institute of Clinical Research (KAVI-ICR)
    University of Nairobi
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

    Investigators

    Principal Investigator: Walter Jaoko, MD KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research / University of Nairobi
    Principal Investigator: Kelly MacDonald, MD University of Toronto
    Principal Investigator: Omu Anzala, MD KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research / University of Nairobi
    More Information

    More Information


    Responsible Party: Dr Walter Jaoko, Professor, University of Nairobi  
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02514018   History of Changes  
    Other Study ID Numbers: KAVI-VZV-001  
    Study First Received: June 29, 2015  
    Last Updated: October 14, 2016  

    Keywords provided by Dr Walter Jaoko, University of Nairobi:

    Varicella-Zoster Virus
    Immune Activation
    HIV Vaccine
    Mucosal Immunity

    Additional relevant MeSH terms:
    Chickenpox
    Herpes Zoster
    Vaccines

    ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on December 12, 2017
    This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov.