Clinical Trials


Vedolizumab (Anti-alpha4beta7) in Subjects With HIV Infection Undergoing Analytical Treatment Interruption

This study has been completed
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Information provided by (Responsible Party)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Identifier

First received: May 28, 2016
Last updated: February 19, 2020
Last Verified: March 4, 2019
History of Changes



In most people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), their immune system cannot control HIV infection. They need drugs called combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to control the HIV. When people stop cART treatment, their immune system cannot control the infection again. They can also become resistant to cART and have lasting side effects. Researchers want to test if the drug vedolizumab is effective at controlling HIV infection without the need for cART.


To test if vedolizumab is safe and can control the amount of HIV in the blood when cART is not taken.


People ages 18-65 who have HIV and are being treated with cART


Participants will be screened with:

Physical exam

Medical history

Electrocardiogram: Soft, sticky patches on the chest, arms, and legs measure heart activity.

Blood and urine tests

Participants will have a baseline visit. This will be 2-5 hours each day for 1-2 days. It will include repeats of the screening tests and:

Leukapheresis: Blood is removed through a needle in the arm. A machine separates the white blood cells from the blood. The rest of the blood is returned to the participant.

Neurologic exam: The nerves and reflexes are tested.

First vedolizumab infusion through an arm vein

Participants will have visits every 4 weeks for 30 weeks. These will include:

Vedolizumab infusions

Repeats of baseline tests

Participants will have more visits for blood draws.

Participants will keep taking cART until after the week 22 infusion.

After discontinuing cART at study week 22, participants will be seen every two weeks to monitor the CD4 count and the level of HIV in the blood. Some of these visits will occur in between infusion visits and will only take about 1 hour to complete. cART will be restarted if a participant's HIV levels go up to high, or if their CD4 cell counts decreases by too much.

For the follow-up phase, participants will have visits every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. These will include blood tests and a physical exam.


Condition Intervention Phase

Biological : Entyvio (Vedolizumab)
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: An Exploratory, Open-Label Study of Vedolizumab (Anti-alpha4beta7 Antibody) in Subjects With HIV Infection Undergoing Analytical Treatment Interruption

Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Primary Outcome Measures

  • Number of Grade 2 or Higher Related Adverse Events [ Time Frame: From the start of the initial infusion until up to 72 weeks. ]
    The primary endpoint was the number of grade 2 or higher adverse events, including serious adverse events, that were probably or definitely related to vedolizumab.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Subjects Who Met Criteria to Restart Antiretroviral Therapy Before Week 48 [ Time Frame: From Week 22 until up to 48 weeks. ]
    The secondary endpoint was defined as number of subjects who experienced plasma viremia following ATI and met criteria to restart cART before week 48 [a confirmed >30% decline in baseline CD4+ T Cell count or an absolute CD4+ T Cell count in the setting of detectable HIV viremia (>40 copies/mL); a sustained (>4weeks) HIV RNA level of > 1000 copies/mL, or any HIV related symptoms or pregnancy.]

Enrollment: 26
Study Start Date: May 28, 2016
Study Completion Date: March 4, 2019
Primary Completion Date: March 4, 2019 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: HIV-infected Adults on cART
HIV-infected Adults (age 18 - 65) on CART with suppressed viremia
Biological: Entyvio (Vedolizumab)

A humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to the alpha4beta7 integrin with MAdCAM-1, which in turn inhibits the migration of T-lymphocytes across the endothelium into GALT

Detailed Description:

While combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved the clinical outcome for HIV-infected individuals, persistence of viral reservoirs in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues remains a hurdle to complete eradication of virus and cure of the infection. The concept that HIV preferentially infects discrete subsets of CD4+ T cells underscores the need to develop therapeutics that exploit specific cell-virus interactions. T cells expressing integrin alpha4beta7 not only regulate migration into the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), but also concomitantly bind HIV, placing them in a prime position to disseminate HIV throughout the tissue. Previously, it has been shown that the HIV envelope protein gp120 binds to alpha4beta7 on CD4+ T cells in vitro, alpha4beta7high CD4+ T cells are highly susceptible to productive HIV infection in vitro, and the administration of anti-alpha4beta7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) prevents and/or delays transmission of SIV upon repeated challenges and preserves CD4+ T cells in rhesus macaques. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that administration of anti-alpha4beta7 mAb in SIV-infected rhesus macaques receiving cART suppresses plasma viremia for extended periods following discontinuation of cART, collectively suggesting that sustained virologic remission in the absence of cART may be achieved via direct targeting of alpha4beta7 integrin. It is well established that the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals treated with cART experience plasma viral rebound within weeks of cessation of therapy. Considering that current research on the treatment of HIV-infected individuals has been heavily focused on developing strategies aimed at achieving sustained virologic remission in the absence of cART, it is of great interest to investigate whether administration of anti-alpha4beta7 mAb can prevent plasma viral rebound and allow durable suppression of viral replication in HIV infected individuals after discontinuation of cART. We propose to examine the effect of vedolizumab, an FDA approved anti-alpha4beta7 mAb for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, on plasma viral rebound in HIV-infected individuals following analytical treatment interruption (ATI).



Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 65 Years  
Sexes Eligible for Study: All  
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No  


    1. Age, 18 - 65 years
    2. Documented HIV-1 infection and clinically stable
    3. In general good health, with an identified primary health care provider for medical management of HIV infection and willing to maintain a relationship with a primary health care provider for medical management of HIV infection while participating in the study
    4. CD4+ T cell count >450 cells/mm3 at screening
    5. Documentation of continuous cART treatment with suppression of plasma viral level below the limit of detection for more than or equal 2 years. Subjects with blips (i.e., detectable viral levels on cART) prior to screening may be included provided they satisfy the following criteria:
      1. The blips are <400 copies/mL, and
      2. Succeeding viral levels return to levels below the limit of detection on subsequent testing
    6. Willingness to undergo ATI
    7. Laboratory values within pre-defined limits at screening:
      • Absolute neutrophil count >1,000/mm3
      • Hemoglobin (Hgb) levels >10.0 g/dL for men and >9.0 g/dL for women
      • Platelet count >100,000/mm3
      • Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) <1.5 upper limit of normal (ULN)
      • Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of greater than or equal to 50 mL/min as determined by the NIH Clinical Center laboratory
      • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of <1.1 x ULN. Total bilirubin <1.1 x ULN (unless subject is taking atazanavir or has Gilbert s Syndrome)
    8. Willingness to have samples stored for future research

    Participation of Women:

  • Contraception: The effects of vedolizumab on the developing human fetus are unknown. For this reason, men and women of childbearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation.
  • Exclusion Criteria:
  • Chronic hepatitis B, as evidenced by a positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as evidenced by a positive test for HCV RNA. Subjects with a positive test for HCV antibody and a negative test for HCV RNA are eligible.
  • Documented nadir CD4+ T cell count <200 cells /mm3
  • Documented multiclass antiretroviral drug resistance that, in the judgment of the investigator, would pose a risk of virologic failure should additional mutations develop during the study
  • HIV immunotherapy or vaccine(s) received within 1 year prior to screening
  • Any licensed or experimental non-HIV vaccination (e.g., hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide) received within 2 weeks prior to study enrollment
  • Receipt of other investigational study agent within 28 days of enrollment
  • Any active malignancy that may require systemic chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Systemic immunosuppressive medications received within 3 months prior to enrollment. The following are not excluded: [1] corticosteroid nasal spray or inhaler; [2] topical corticosteroids for mild, uncomplicated dermatitis; and [3] oral/parenteral corticosteroids administered for non-chronic conditions not expected to recur (length of therapy less than or equal to 10 days, with completion in more than or equal to 30 days prior to enrollment)
  • History or other clinical evidence of:
    • Significant or unstable cardiac disease (e.g., angina, congestive heart failure, recent myocardial infarction)
    • Severe illness, chronic liver disease, malignancy, immunodeficiency other than HIV, active systemic infection other than HIV, or any other condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would make the subject unsuitable for the study
    • Active or latent tuberculosis, regardless of treatment history
  • Neurologic or neuropsychiatric disorder, the symptoms of which mimic PML and could interfere with the assessment of safety (e.g. history of encephalitis with motor sequela, stroke with sequela, severe major depressive disorder, severe bipolar disorder, seizure disorder)
  • Active drug or alcohol abuse or any other pattern of behavior that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements
  • Pregnancy or breast-feeding Co-enrollment Guidelines: Co-enrollment in other trials is restricted, other than enrollment on observational studies. Study staff should be notified of co-enrollment as it will require the approval of the Principal Investigator.

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    Contacts and Locations

    Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision.Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below.For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

    Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT02788175


    United States, Maryland
    National Institutes of Health Clinical Center
    Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)


    Principal Investigator: Michael C Sneller, M.D. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
    More Information

    More Information

    Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT02788175   History of Changes  
    Other Study ID Numbers: 160118  
    Study First Received: May 28, 2016  
    Last Updated: February 19, 2020  

    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes  
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No  

    Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

    HIV Immune Therapy
    Monoclonal Antibody

    Additional relevant MeSH terms:
    HIV Infections
    Vedolizumab processed this data on July 07, 2020
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