CYT-107Other Names: IL-7, glycol-r-hIL-7, glycosylated recombinant human interleukin-7, interleukin-7, r-hIL-7, recombinant human interleukin-7, rhIL-7 Drug Class: Immune Modulators Registry Number: 858376-81-5 (CAS) Chemical Class: Recombinant interleukin Organization: Cytheris SA; Revimmune Phase of Development: CYT-107 is in Phase II development for HIV.
(Compound details obtained from ChemIDplus Advanced,1 NIAID Therapeutics Database,2 Cytheris SA news release,3 and Annals of Oncology article4)
What is an investigational drug?
Anis one that is under study and is not approved by the U.S. (FDA) for sale in the United States. Medical research studies are conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an investigational drug. These research studies are also called clinical trials. Once an investigational drug has been proven safe and effective in clinical trials, FDA may approve the drug for sale in the United States.
To learn more about investigational drugs, read the AIDSinfo What is an Investigational HIV Drug? fact sheet.
What is CYT-107?
CYT-107 is an investigational drug that is categorized as an immune modulator.2 Immune modulators (also called immunomodulators) are substances that help to activate, boost, or restore normal immune function.
HIVcan damage a person’s over the course of the viral infection. For example, certain immune system cells or proteins may not be produced in normal amounts and may not work properly.5-9
CYT-107 is a manufactured version of, a that is naturally made by the body to help activate the immune system to produce more immune cells.3,10 Researchers have studied how CYT-107 can help modify the functioning of the immune system as part of a strategy to treat or cure HIV infection.11-13
How are clinical trials of investigational drugs conducted?
Clinical trials are conducted in phases. Each phase has a different purpose and helps researchers answer different questions.14
- Phase I trials: Researchers test an investigational drug in a small group of people (20–80) for the first time. The purpose is to evaluate its safety and identify side effects.
- Phase II trials: The investigational drug is administered to a larger group of people (100–300) to determine its effectiveness and to further evaluate its safety.
- Phase III trials: The investigational drug is administered to large groups of people (1,000–3,000) to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, compare it with standard or equivalent treatments, and collect information that will allow the investigational drug to be used safely.14
In most cases, an investigational drug must be proven effective and must show continued safety in a Phase IIIto be considered for approval by FDA for sale in the United States. Some drugs go through FDA’s accelerated approval process and are approved before a Phase III clinical trial is complete. After a drug is approved by FDA and made available to the public, researchers track its safety in Phase IV trials to seek more information about the drug’s risks, benefits, and optimal use.14
Some clinical trials are categorized as “a” or “b,” such as “Phase Ia” or “Phase IIb.” These different subphases typically mean that a study is researching certain types of information or using a certain type of participant population.
In what phase of testing is CYT-107?
CYT-107 has been studied in Phase II clinical trials for HIV.3
What are some studies on CYT-107?
Study Names: INSPIRE; NCT00477321
Sponsor: Cytheris SA
Location: United States, Canada, France, Italy
- Participants were adults with HIV who had been on HIV medicines for at least 12 months before entering the study.
- Participants had viral load levels (the amount of HIV in a blood sample) of less than 50 copies/mL for at least 6 months while on HIV medicines.
- Participants had CD4 counts between 101 and 400 cells/mm3. (A is a laboratory test that measures the number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood and is an important indicator of immune function.)
*This study has been completed.15
Study Names: 1) INSPIRE 2; NCT01190111 and 2) INSPIRE 3; NCT01241643
Sponsor: Cytheris SA
Location: INSPIRE 2: United States and Canada; INSPIRE 3: Italy, South Africa, and Switzerland
- INSPIRE 2: Participants were adults with HIV who had been taking HIV medicines for at least 12 months before entering the study. Participants had viral load levels of less than 50 copies/mL for at least 6 months and CD4 counts between 101 and 400 cells/mm3.
- INSPIRE 3: Participants were adults with HIV who had been taking HIV medicines for at least 24 months before entering the study. Participants had viral load levels of less than 50 copies/mL for at least 18 months and CD4 counts between 101 and 350 cells/mm3.
*INSPIRE 2 has been completed. INSPIRE 3 was terminated early.16,17,18
Study Names: ERAMUNE-01; NCT01019551
Sponsor: Objectif Recherche Vaccins SIDA
Location: France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom
- Participants were adults whose HIV had been controlled with HIV medicines for at least 3 years.
- Participants had levels, which is when the amount of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected with a viral load (HIV RNA) test.
- Participants had CD4 counts of at least 350 cells/mm3 and HIV DNA levels between 10 to 1,000 copies/106 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). (Levels of HIV DNA in PBMCs is a measure of low levels of residual HIV in the body that cannot be detected by standard viral load tests.)
*This study has been completed.19
For more details on the studies listed above, see the Health Professional version.
What side effects might CYT-107 cause?
In the INSPIRE study (NCT00477321) discussed under the previous question, 2 participants in the highest dosing group had serious side effects. One participant had temporary severe damage, and the other participant had a moderate rash. In the 2 lower dosing groups, there were no serious side effects. In the INSPIRE 2 and INSPIRE 3 studies (NCT01190111 and NCT01241643), 4 patients reported serious side effects, including a case of liver damage.11,15,18,20
A common side effect in INSPIRE and INSPIRE 2 was a mild to moderate reaction at the location of the CYT-107 injections. Symptoms showing up in other parts of the body, such as flu-like symptoms, fever, or fatigue, occurred in 16% of participants who received CYT-107 in INSPIRE 2.20,21
In the ERAMUNE-01 study (NCT01019551), a participant receiving both HIV medicines and CYT-107 had an inflamed vein (phlebitis) in the lower leg.22
Information on possible side effects of CYT-107 is not complete. As testing of CYT-107 continues, additional information on possible side effects will be gathered.
Where can I get more information about clinical trials studying CYT-107?
More information about CYT-107-related research studies is available from the AIDSinfo database of study summaries. Click on the title of any trial in the list to see the ClinicalTrials.gov trial summary and more information about the study.
How can I find more information about participating in a clinical trial?
Participating in a clinical trial can provide benefits. For example, a volunteer participant can benefit from new research treatments before they are widely available. Participants also receive regular and careful medical attention from a research team that includes doctors and other health professionals. However, clinical trials may also involve risks of varying degrees, such as unpleasant, serious, or even life-threatening side effects from the treatment being studied.14
Your health care provider can help you decide whether participating in a clinical trial is right for you. For more information, visit NIH Clinical Research Trials and You.
- United States National Library of Medicine. ChemIDPlus Advanced. Available at: https://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/858376-81-5. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). NIAID ChemDB, HCV Drugs in Development. Available at: https://chemdb.niaid.nih.gov/DrugDevelopmentHCV.aspx. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Cytheris SA: Press release, dated October 19, 2010. Cytheris Announces Initiation of ORVACS-Sponsored Phase II Clinical Study to Attack Viral Reservoir of HIV Patients. Available at: http://www.natap.org/2010/newsUpdates/102210_04.htm. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Trédan O, Ménétrier-Caux C, Ray-Coquard I, et al. ELYPSE-7: a randomized placebo-controlled phase IIa trial with CYT107 exploring the restoration of CD4+ lymphocyte count in lymphopenic metastatic breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2015 Jul; 26(7): 1353-62. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851629. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Barouch DH, Deeks SG. Immunologic Strategies for HIV-1 Remission and Eradication. Science. 2014 Jul 11; 345(6193): 169–174. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096716/. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Lederman MM, Rodriguez B, Sieg S. Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infection. In: Coffey S and Volberding P, eds. HIV InSite Knowledge Base. University of California San Francisco; 2004. Available at: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-00&doc=kb-02-01-04. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Kedzierska K, Crowe SM. Cytokines and HIV-1: interactions and clinical implications. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2001 May; 12(3): 133-50. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12959322. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Siliciano RF, Greene WC. HIV Latency. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011 Sep; 1(1): a007096. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3234450/. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Savarino A, Shytaj IL. Chloroquine and beyond: exploring anti-rheumatic drugs to reduce immune hyperactivation in HIV/AIDS. Retrovirology. 2015; 12: 51. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4472405/. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- National Cancer Institute (NCI). NCI Drug Dictionary: glycosylated recombinant human interleukin-7. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug?CdrID=597722. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Lévy Y, Sereti I, Tambussi G, et al. Effects of Recombinant Human Interleukin 7 on T-Cell Recovery and Thymic Output in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: Results of a Phase I/IIa Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 15; 55(2): 291–300. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3381639/. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Vandergeeten C, Fromentin R, DaFonseca S, et al. Interleukin-7 promotes HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2013 May 23; 121(21): 4321–4329. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3663425/. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Katlama C, Lambert-Niclot S, Assoumou L, et al. Treatment intensification followed by interleukin-7 reactivates HIV without reducing total HIV DNA: a randomized trial. AIDS. 2016 Jan; 30(2): 221-30. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26684819. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH Clinical Research Trials and You. Available at: https://www.nih.gov/health-information/nih-clinical-research-trials-you. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Cytheris SA. A Ph I/IIa Rand Placebo Ctrl, S-Blind Multictr Dose-Esc Study of SC Intermittent Interleukin-7 CYT107 in Chronically HIV-Infected Pts With CD4 T Lymphocyte Counts 101-400 Cells-/mm(3) and Plasma HIV RNA Less Than 50 Copies/mL After at Least 12 M of HAART. In: ClinicalTrials.gov. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Registered on May 22, 2007. NLM Identifier: NCT00477321. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00477321. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Cytheris SA. An Open-label, Multicenter Study of Subcutaneous Intermittent Recombinant Interleukin-7 (CYT107) in Chronically HIV-infected Patients With CD4 T-lymphocyte Counts Between 101-400 Cells/mm3 and Plasma HIV RNA< 50 Copies/mL After at Least 12 Months of HAART. In: ClinicalTrials.gov. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Registered on August 23, 2010. NLM Identifier: NCT01190111. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01190111. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Cytheris SA. A Multicenter, Open-labeled, Controlled, Randomized Study of Recombinant Interleukin-7 (CYT107) Treatment to Restore and Maintain CD4 T-lymphocyte Counts Above 500 Cells/µL in HIV-infected Patients With CD4 Counts Remaining Between 101-350 Cells/µL After at Least 2 Years of HAART and Plasma HIV RNA < 50 Copies/mL for 18 Months. In: ClinicalTrials.gov. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Registered on November 15, 2010. NLM Identifier: NCT01241643. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01241643. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Thiébaut R, Jarne A, Routy JP, et al. Repeated cycles of recombinant human interleukin 7 in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 T-cell reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy: results of 2 Phase II multicenter studies. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 May 1; 62(9): 1178-1185. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4826452/. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Objectif Recherche Vaccins SIDA. International, Multicenter, Randomized, Non-comparative Controlled Study of Therapeutic Intensification Plus Immunomodulation in HIV-infected Patients With Long-term Viral Suppression. In: ClinicalTrials.gov. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Registered on November 23, 2009. NLM Identifier: NCT01019551. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01019551. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Levy Y, Sereti I, Tambussi G, et al. INSPIRE Study: Effects of r-hIL-7 on T Cell Recovery and Thymic Output in HIV-infected Patients Receiving c-ART - Interim Analysis of a Phase I/IIa Multicenter Study. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC); September 12-15, 2009; San Francisco, CA. Levin: Conference reports for National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project (NATAP); 2009. Available at: http://www.natap.org/2009/ICCAC/ICCAC_39.htm. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Sereti I, Routy J-P, Fischl M, et al. Recombinant Interleukin-7 (CYT107) Expands CD4 T Cells in Peripheral Blood and Gut Mucosa of Chronically HIV-Infected Immunological Non-Responder Patients. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI); February 27 - March 2, 2011; Boston, MA. Levin: Conference reports for National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project (NATAP); 2011. Available at: http://www.natap.org/2011/CROI/croi_84.htm. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
- Katlama C, Lambert-Niclot S, Assoumou L, et al. Impact of Interleukin 7 and Raltegravir plus Maraviroc intensification on total HIV DNA reservoir: Results from ERAMUNE 01. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI); March 3 - 6, 2013; Atlanta, GA. Levin: Conference reports for National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project (NATAP); 2013. Available at: http://www.natap.org/2013/CROI/croi_177.htm. Last accessed on August 9, 2017.
Last Reviewed: August 9, 2017