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Issue No. 32 | August 6, 2010

News and Features

Study Suggests Higher Dose of Lopinavir/ritonavir Should be Used in Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy

“Reduced lopinavir concentrations have been demonstrated with use of the capsule formulation during the third trimester of pregnancy. This study determined lopinavir exposure with an increased dose of the new tablet formulation during the third trimester. … International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials 1026s is a prospective nonblinded pharmacokinetic study in HIV-infected pregnant women, including a cohort receiving 2 lopinavir/ritonavir tablets (400 mg/100 mg) twice daily during the second trimester, 3 tablets (600 mg/150 mg) twice daily during the third trimester, and 2 tablets (400 mg/100 mg) twice daily post delivery through 2 weeks postpartum. … Steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles were performed during pregnancy and at 2 weeks postpartum. … Thirty-three women were studied. Median lopinavir AUC for the second trimester (n = 11), third trimester (n = 33), and postpartum (n = 27) were 72, 96, and 133 mcg x hr/mL, respectively. Median minimum lopinavir concentrations were 3.4, 4.9, and 6.9 mcg/mL. … The higher lopinavir/ritonavir tablet dose (600 mg/150 mg) provided exposure during the third trimester similar to the average AUC (98 mcg x hr x mL(-1) in nonpregnant adults taking 400 mg/100 mg twice daily. The higher dose should be used during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Postpartum dosing can be reduced to standard dosing before 2 weeks postpartum.”

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Study Suggests Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Novel Fixed-Dose Combination Tablet Warrants Further Evaluation

“This study evaluated the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of elvitegravir (EVG), emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and a investigational pharmacoenhancer, cobicistat (GS-9350, COBI) coformulated as a fixed-dose combination tablet (FDC) compared with ritonavir-boosted EVG and FTC + TDF in healthy subjects. … Subjects were randomized to 1 of 2 sequences. All treatments were administered in the morning for 10 days with food, separated by a 2-day washout. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours with the last dose of each treatment. ... All study treatments were generally well tolerated. Relative to ritonavir-boosted EVG, the geometric least-squares means ratios (GMR) [90% confidence interval (CI)] for EVG area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero until the end of the dosing interval (AUC)tau, maximum concentration (Cmax), and trough concentration (Ctau) were 118 (110 to 126), 108 (100 to 116), and 110 (95.3 to 127), respectively, with EVG/COBI 150 mg/FTC/TDF. Relative to FTC + TDF, FTC GMR, and 90% CI were 127 (115 to 140) for AUCtau, 121 (107 to 137) for Cmax, and 126 (118 to 136) for Ctau; tenofovir (TFV) GMR and 90% CI were 118 (114 to 122), 130 (122 to 138), and 124 (119 to 129) for AUCtau, Cmax, and Ctau, respectively, with EVG/COBI 150 mg/FTC/TDF. … Fixed-dose combination tablet containing COBI 150 mg resulted in desired high EVG Ctau concentrations and clinically equivalent tenofovir and FTC exposures relative to currently approved individual agents and was thus selected for subsequent evaluation.”

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