CDC Updates Epidemiology of HIV Infection Slide Set
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated the “Epidemiology of HIV Infection (through 2009)” slide set. The slide set provides information on HIV infection and AIDS diagnoses in the United States, including breakdowns of diagnoses by age group, sex, transmission category, and race/ethnicity.
Study Evaluates Risk of Heart Failure in Patients with HIV Infection
“To determine whether HIV infection is a risk factor for incident [heart failure] HF, we conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected veterans enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC) and the 1999 Large Health Study of Veteran Enrollees (LHS) from January 1, 2000, to July 31, 2007. ...
“There were 8486 participants (28.2% HIV-infected) enrolled in the VACS-VC who also participated in the 1999 LHS. During the median 7.3 years of follow-up, 286 incident HF events occurred. Age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted HF rates among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected veterans were 7.12 … and 4.82 ... per 1000 person-years, respectively. Compared with HIV-uninfected veterans, those who were HIV infected had an increased risk of HF… . This association persisted among veterans who did not have a coronary heart disease event or a diagnosis related to alcohol abuse or dependence before the incident HF event … . Compared with HIV-uninfected veterans, those who were HIV infected with a baseline Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA level of 500 or more copies/mL had a higher risk of HF … while those with baseline and a recent HIV-1 RNA level less than 500 copies/mL did not ... .
“Our data suggest that HIV infection is a risk factor for HF. Ongoing viral replication is associated with a higher risk of developing HF.”
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Study Examines Differential microRNA Regulation of HLA-C Expression and Its Association with HIV Control
“The HLA-C locus is distinct relative to the other classical HLA class I loci in that it has relatively limited polymorphism, lower expression on the cell surface, and more extensive ligand-receptor interactions with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed -35) associates with control of HIV, and with levels of HLA-C messenger RNA transcripts and cell-surface expression, but the mechanism underlying its varied expression is unknown. We proposed that the -35 SNP is not the causal variant for differential HLA-C expression, but rather is marking another polymorphism that directly affects levels of HLA-C. Here we show that variation within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of HLA-C regulates binding of the microRNA hsa-miR-148 to its target site, resulting in relatively low surface expression of alleles that bind this microRNA and high expression of HLA-C alleles that escape post-transcriptional regulation. The 3' UTR variant associates strongly with control of HIV, potentially adding to the effects of genetic variation encoding the peptide-binding region of the HLA class I loci. Variation in HLA-C expression adds another layer of diversity to this highly polymorphic locus that must be considered when deciphering the function of these molecules in health and disease.”
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