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Issue No. 28 | November 6, 2013

News and Features

Updated Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children Released

The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) announce the release of the updated Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. The guidelines were simultaneously published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (PIDJ).
Selected key updates to the guidelines include the following:

  • Greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs), especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists;
  • Increased information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS); 
  • Information about managing ART in children with OIs, including potential drug-drug interactions; 
  • Updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including pneumococcal, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines;
  • Addition of sections on influenza, giardiasis, and isosporiasis;
  • Elimination of sections on aspergillosis, bartonellosis, and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 infections; and 
  • Updated recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children.

In addition to information on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of each OI, the guidelines include a summary of the most important recommendations for each OI at the beginning of each section and a table of dosing recommendations at the end of each section. Summary tables are included at the end of the document that list dosing recommendations for preventing and treating OIs in children, drug preparation and toxicity information for children, and major drug-drug interactions.
To view or download the guidelines, go to the Pediatric OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines section of AIDSinfo. Separate PDF files of the tables can also be downloaded from the page.

Your Feedback Is Welcome

Feedback on the latest revisions to the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children is welcome. Please send your comments with the subject line “Comments on Pediatric OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines” to by November 20, 2013.

Recent HIV/AIDS News from NIAID

  • October 31, 2013: NIH-Funded Scientists Reveal Structure of HIV Protein Key to Cell Entry

    “Using protein engineering and two different cutting-edge structural biology imaging techniques, researchers have developed a detailed picture of the protein largely responsible for enabling HIV to enter human immune cells and cause infection. An in-depth understanding of the atomic structure of the HIV envelope trimer—or Env, the three-component protein found on HIV’s surface—is critical to better understanding how HIV gains entry into cells and for creating potential HIV vaccines.”

    Read the NIAID press release.
  • October 30, 2013: HIV Antibody Infusions Show Promise for Treating SHIV-Infected Monkeys

    “Two teams are reporting results from experiments in which they infused powerful anti-HIV antibodies into monkeys infected with an HIV-like virus, rapidly reducing the amount of virus, or viral load, to undetectable levels, where it remained for extended periods.”

    Read the NIAID press release.