Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

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Specific Issues in Antiretroviral Therapy for Adolescents Living with HIV Infection

Last Updated: April 16, 2019; Last Reviewed: April 16, 2019

Panel's Recommendations Regarding Specific Issues in Antiretroviral Therapy for Adolescents Living with HIV Infection
Panel's Recommendations
  • All adolescents should receive maximally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART); this is urgent for those who are sexually active, considering pregnancy, or pregnant (AII).
  • ART regimen selection should include consideration of the adolescent’s individual needs and preferences (AIII).
  • Reproductive health issues—including pregnancy intentions, contraceptive methods, safer sex techniques to prevent transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, pre-exposure prophylaxis for partners, pregnancy planning, and preconception care—should be discussed regularly (AI).
  • Providers should be aware of potential interactions between ART and hormonal contraceptives that could lower contraceptive efficacy (AII*).
  • Pediatric and adolescent care providers should prepare adolescents for the transition into adult care settings (AIII).
  • All adolescents living with HIV should be screened for mental health disorders and substance use disorders (AII).
Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Optional

Rating of Evidence: I = One or more randomized trials in children with clinical outcomes and/or validated endpoints; I* = One or more randomized trials in adults with clinical outcomes and/or validated laboratory endpoints with accompanying data in children from one or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes; II = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies in children with long-term outcomes; II* = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational studies in adults with long-term clinical outcomes with accompanying data in children from one or more similar nonrandomized trials or cohort studies with clinical outcome data; III = Expert opinion

Studies that include children or children/adolescents, but not studies limited to post-pubertal adolescents

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