Intrapartum Antiretroviral Therapy/Prophylaxis
Last Updated: December 24, 2019; Last Reviewed: December 24, 2019
Panel's Recommendations for Intrapartum Antiretroviral Therapy/Prophylaxis
- Women should continue taking their antepartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) on schedule as much as possible during labor and before scheduled cesarean delivery (AIII).
- Intravenous (IV) zidovudine (ZDV):
- Should be administered to women with HIV if HIV RNA is known or suspected to be >1,000 copies/mL (or if HIV RNA is unknown) near delivery (AI).
- Scheduled cesarean delivery at 38 weeks gestation (compared to 39 weeks for most indications) is recommended for women who have HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL near delivery (see Transmission and Mode of Delivery) (AI).
- Is not required for women who are receiving ART regimens and who have HIV RNA ≤50 copies/mL during late pregnancy and near delivery and no concerns regarding adherence to the ART regimen (BII).
- May be considered for women with HIV RNA between 50 copies/mL and 999 copies/mL. There are inadequate data to determine whether administration of IV ZDV to women with HIV RNA levels between 50 copies/mL and 999 copies/mL provides any additional protection against perinatal HIV transmission. This decision can be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the woman’s recent ART adherence and her preferences and involving expert consultation if needed (CII).
- Women who present in labor with unknown HIV status should undergo expedited antigen/antibody HIV testing (AII). See Maternal HIV Testing and Identification of Perinatal HIV Exposure for more information.
- If the results are positive, an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation test and an HIV-1 RNA assay should be done as soon as possible, and maternal IV ZDV and infant combination antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis should be initiated pending results of the differentiation test (AII).
- If the maternal HIV differentiation test is positive or if acute infection is suspected because the differentiation test is negative but the HIV RNA test is positive, infant ARV drugs should be managed as discussed in Antiretroviral Management of Newborns with Perinatal HIV Exposure or HIV Infection (AI). Women with positive expedited test results should not initiate breastfeeding until HIV infection is definitively ruled out (see Postpartum Follow-Up of Women Living with HIV Infection) (AII).
- If the maternal HIV differentiation test is negative and acute HIV infection has been reasonably excluded with a negative HIV RNA test result, the maternal and infant ARV drugs should be stopped (AIII).