Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States
The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.
Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (Viread, TDF)
Last Updated: December 7, 2018; Last Reviewed: December 7, 2018
Excerpt from Table 10
Note: When using FDCs, refer to other sections in Appendix B and Table 10 for information about the dosing and safety of individual drug components of the FDC during pregnancy.
|Formulation||Dosing Recommendationsa||Use in Pregnancy|
|Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Note: Generic available for some formulations
|Standard Adult Doses
|High placental transfer to fetus.b
No evidence of human teratogenicity (can rule out 1.5-fold increase in overall birth defects).
Studies in monkeys (at doses approximately 2-fold higher than those for human therapeutic use) show decreased fetal growth and reduction in fetal bone porosity within 2 months of starting maternal therapy. Human studies demonstrate no consistent link to low birth weight, but data are conflicting about potential effects on growth outcomes later in infancy.
If patient is HBV coinfected, it is possible that an HBV flare may occur if TDF is stopped; see HIV/Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection.
Renal function should be monitored because of potential for renal toxicity.
a Individual ARV drug doses may need to be adjusted in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency (for details, see the Adult and Adolescent Guidelines Appendix B, Table 8).
b Placental transfer categories are determined by mean or median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma drug ratio:
Key to Acronyms: : AUC = area under the curve; 3TC = lamivudine; COBI = cobicistat; DOR = doravirine; EFV = efavirenz; EVG = elvitegravir; FDC = fixed-dose combination; FTC = emtricitabine; HBV = hepatitis B virus; PK = pharmacokinetic; RPV = rilpivirine; TDF = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
- AIDSinfo Drug Database
- AIDSinfo Patient Materials: Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
- AIDSinfo Patient Materials: HIV Medicines During Pregnancy and Childbirth
- AIDSinfo Patient Materials: Protecting Baby from HIV
- AETC National HIV Curriculum
- How to Cite These Guidelines
- Perinatal Guidelines Archive