Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy/JC Virus Infection

Last Updated: November 13, 2018; Last Reviewed: June 26, 2019

Recommendations for Preventing and Treating PML and JCV
  • There is no effective antiviral therapy for preventing or treating JCV infections or PML.
  • The main approach to treatment is to preserve immune function and reverse HIV-associated immunosuppression with effective ART.
  • HIV-associated PML is often complicated by clinically significant IRIS that may require administration of corticosteroid therapy.
  • In ART-naive patients who are diagnosed with PML, ART should be started immediately (AII).
  • In patients who are receiving ART but remain viremic because of inadequate adherence or drug resistance, ART should be optimized to achieve HIV suppression (AIII).
Key to Acronyms: ART = antiretroviral therapy; JCV = JC virus; PML = progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

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