Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children
The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.
Last Updated: November 6, 2013; Last Reviewed: November 6, 2013
|Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Optional
Rating of Evidence: I = One or more randomized trials in children† with clinical outcomes and/or validated endpoints; I* = One or more randomized trials in adults with clinical outcomes and/or validated laboratory endpoints with accompanying data in children† from one or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes; II = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies in children† with long-term outcomes; II* = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational studies in adults with long-term clinical outcomes with accompanying data in children† from one or more similar nonrandomized trials or cohort studies with clinical outcome data; III = Expert opinion
†Studies that include children or children/adolescents, but not studies limited to post-pubertal adolescents
|Indication||First Choice||Alternative||Comments/Special Issues|
|Primary Prophylaxis||cART to avoid advanced immunodeficiency||N/A||N/A|
||Metronidazole 5 mg/kg by mouth every 8 hours for 5-7 days.
Note: Based on data from HIV-uninfected children
|Tinidazole is approved in the United States for children aged ≥3 years. It is available in tablets that can be crushed.
Metronidazole has high frequency of gastrointestinal side effects. A pediatric suspension of metronidazole is not commercially available but can be compounded from tablets. It is not FDA-approved for the treatment of giardiasis.
|Key to Acronyms: cART = combination antiretroviral therapy; FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration|