Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Last Updated: November 6, 2013; Last Reviewed: November 6, 2013

Panel's Recommendations for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Panel's Recommendations
  • The main approach to treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is treatment with an effective antiretroviral regimen that suppresses HIV viremia and preserves or restores CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell-defined immune function (AII).
  • Intrathecal cytosine arabinoside and cidofovir are not routinely recommended for treatment of PML (BIII)
  • Immunomodulatory approaches, such as interferon alfa, are not routinely recommended for treatment of PML (BIII).
Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Optional
Rating of Evidence: I = One or more randomized trials in children with clinical outcomes and/or validated endpoints; I* = One or more randomized trials in adults with clinical outcomes and/or validated laboratory endpoints with accompanying data in children from one or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes; II = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies in children† with long-term outcomes; II* = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational studies in adults with long-term clinical outcomes with accompanying data in children from one or more similar nonrandomized trials or cohort studies with clinical outcome data; III = Expert opinion

Studies that include children or children/adolescents, but not studies limited to post-pubertal adolescents

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