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Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents

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Appendix B: Drug Characteristics Tables

Characteristics of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

Last Updated: July 14, 2016; Last Reviewed: July 14, 2016

Note: Delavirdine (DLV) is not included in this table. Please refer to the DLV Food and Drug Administration package insert for related information.

Appendix B, Table 2. Characteristics of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Formulations Dosing Recommendationsa Elimination/ Metabolic Pathway Serum
Adverse Eventsb

Also available as a component of fixed-dose combination (by trade name and abbreviation):
  • 50 and 200 mg capsules
  • 600 mg tablet
  • 600 mg once daily, at or before bedtime
  • Take on an empty stomach to reduce side effects.
Metabolized by CYPs 2B6 (primary), 3A4, and 2A6

CYP3A4 mixed inducer/inhibitor (more an inducer than an inhibitor)

CYP2C9 and 2C19 inhibitor; 2B6 inducer
40-55 hours
  • Rashc
  • Neuropsychiatric symptomsd
  • Increased transaminase levels
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • False-positive results with some cannabinoid and benzodiazepine screening assays reported.
  • Teratogenic in non-human primates and potentially teratogenic during the first trimester of pregnancy in humans
  • (EFV 600 mg plus TDF 300 mg plus FTC 200 mg) tablet
  • 1 tablet once daily, at or before bedtime
  • 25, 100, and 200 mg tablets
  • 200 mg BID
  • Take following a meal.
CYP3A4, 2C9, and 2C19 substrate

3A4 inducer; 2C9 and 2C19 inhibitor
41 hours
  • Rash, including Stevens-Johnson syndromec
  • HSRs, characterized by rash, constitutional findings, and sometimes organ dysfunction (including hepatic failure) have been reported.
  • Nausea
Viramune or Viramine XR

Generic available for 200 mg tablets and oral suspension
  • 200 mg tablet
  • 400 mg XR tablet
  • 50 mg/5 mL oral suspension
  • 200 mg once daily for 14 days (lead-in period); thereafter, 200 mg BID, or 400 mg (Viramune XR tablet) once daily
  • Take without regard to meals.
  • Repeat lead-in period if therapy is discontinued for >7 days.
  • In patients who develop mild-to-moderate rash without constitutional symptoms, continue lead-in period until rash resolves but not longer than 28 days total.
CYP450 substrate, inducer of 3A4 and 2B6; 80% excreted in urine (glucuronidated metabolites, <5% unchanged); 10% in feces 25-30 hours
  • Rash, including Stevens-Johnson syndromec
  • Symptomatic hepatitis, including fatal hepatic necrosis, has been reported:
    • Rash reported in approximately 50% of cases.
    • Occurs at significantly higher frequency in ARV-naive female patients with pre-NVP CD4 counts >250 cells/mm3 and in ARV-naive male patients with pre-NVP CD4 counts >400 cells/mm3. NVP should not be initiated in these patients unless the benefit clearly outweighs the risk.

Also available as a component of fixed-dose combinations (by trade name and abbreviation):
  • 25 mg tablet
  • 25 mg once daily
  • Take with a meal.
CYP3A4 substrate 50 hours
  • Rashc
  • Depression, insomnia, headache
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • (RPV 25 mg plus TDF 300 mg plus FTC 200 mg) tablet
  • 1 tablet once daily
  • Take with a meal.
  • (RPV 25 mg plus TAF 25 mg plus FTC 200 mg) tablet
  • 1 tablet once daily
  • Take with a meal.
a For dosage adjustment in renal or hepatic insufficiency, see Appendix B, Table 7.
b Also see Table 14.
c Rare cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported with most NNRTIs; the highest incidence of rash was seen with NVP.
d Adverse events can include dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, abnormal dreams, depression, suicidality (suicide, suicide attempt or ideation), confusion, abnormal thinking, impaired concentration, amnesia, agitation, depersonalization, hallucinations, and euphoria. Approximately 50% of patients receiving EFV may experience any of these symptoms. Symptoms usually subside spontaneously after 2 to 4 weeks but may necessitate discontinuation of EFV in a small percentage of patients.

Key to Abbreviations: ARV = antiretroviral; BID = twice daily; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte; CYP = cytochrome P; DLV = delavirdine; EFV = efavirenz; ETR = etravirine; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; FTC = emtricitabine; HSR = hypersensitivity reaction; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP = nevirapine; RPV = rilpivirine; TAF = tenofovir alafenamide; TDF = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; XR = extended release

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