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Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Gastrointestinal Effects

Last Updated: April 27, 2017; Last Reviewed: April 27, 2017

References

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  2. Kumarasamy N, Venkatesh KK, Devaleenol B, Poongulali S, Mothi SN, Solomon S. Safety, tolerability and effectiveness of generic HAART in HIV-infected children in South India. J Trop Pediatr. 2009;55(3):155-159. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18829638.
  3. Nachman SA, Chernoff M, Gona P, et al. Incidence of noninfectious conditions in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents in the HAART era. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(2):164-171. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188649.
  4. Hoffmann CJ, Fielding KL, Charalambous S, et al. Antiretroviral therapy using zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz in South Africa: tolerability and clinical events. AIDS. 2008;22(1):67-74. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090393.
  5. Malan N, Su J, Mancini M, et al. Gastrointestinal tolerability and quality of life in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: data from the CASTLE study. AIDS Care. 2010;22(6):677-686. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20467943.
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  7. Turner MJ, Angel JB, Woodend K, Giguere P. The efficacy of calcium carbonate in the treatment of protease inhibitor-induced persistent diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. HIV Clin Trials. 2004;5(1):19-24. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15002083.
  8. Heiser CR, Ernst JA, Barrett JT, French N, Schutz M, Dube MP. Probiotics, soluble fiber, and L-Glutamine (GLN) reduce nelfinavir (NFV)- or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-related diarrhea. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care. 2004;3(4):121-129. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15768732.
  9. Tukei VJ, Asiimwe A, Maganda A, et al. Safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children and adolescents in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59(3):274-280. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22126740.
  10. Wegzyn CM, Fredrick LM, Stubbs RO, Woodward WC, Norton M. Diarrhea associated with lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy: results of a meta-analysis of 1469 HIV-1-infected participants. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2012;11(4):252-259. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22544446.
  11. Oumar AA, Diallo K, Dembele JP, et al. Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy: prospective study in children in sikasso (mali). J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2012;17(4):382-388. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411444.
  12. Wattanutchariya N, Sirisanthana V, Oberdorfer P. Effectiveness and safety of protease inhibitor-based regimens in HIV-infected Thai children failing first-line treatment. HIV Med. 2013;14(4):226-232. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094820.
  13. Van Dyke RB, Wang L, Williams PL, Pediatric ACTGCT. Toxicities associated with dual nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor regimens in HIV-infected children. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(11):1599-1608. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19000014.
  14. Strehlau R, Donati AP, Arce PM, et al. PRINCE-1: safety and efficacy of atazanavir powder and ritonavir liquid in HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive and -experienced infants and children aged >/=3 months to <6 years. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18:19467. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066346.
  15. Clay PG, Crutchley RD. Noninfectious diarrhea in HIV seropositive individuals: a review of prevalence rates, etiology, and management in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Ther. 2014. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388760.
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  18. Szoke D, Ridolfo A, Valente C, Galli M, Panteghini M. Frequency of pancreatic hyperamylasemia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Am J Clin Pathol. 2016;145(1):128-133. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26712880.
  19. Castro JG, Chin-Beckford N. Crofelemer for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2015;8(6):683-690. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26517110.
  20. Abadi J, Sprecher E, Rosenberg MG, et al. Partial treatment interruption of protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens in HIV-infected children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41(3):298-303. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16540930.

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