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Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Insulin Resistance, Asymptomatic Hyperglycemia, Diabetes Mellitus

Last Updated: April 27, 2017; Last Reviewed: April 27, 2017

References

  1. Bitnun A, Sochett E, Dick PT, et al. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in protease inhibitor-treated and -naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2005;90(1):168-174. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15483082.
  2. Hadigan C. Insulin resistance among HIV-infected patients: unraveling the mechanism. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(9):1341-1342. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16206113.
  3. Morse CG, Kovacs JA. Metabolic and skeletal complications of HIV infection: the price of success. JAMA. 2006;296(7):844-854. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16905789.
  4. Aldrovandi GM, Lindsey JC, Jacobson DL, et al. Morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in vertically HIV-infected children and youth. AIDS. 2009;23(6):661-672. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279441.
  5. Chantry CJ, Hughes MD, Alvero C, et al. Lipid and glucose alterations in HIV-infected children beginning or changing antiretroviral therapy. Pediatrics. 2008;122(1):e129-138. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18519448.
  6. Samaras K. Prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in HIV-1 infection treated with combined antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(5):499-505. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223782.
  7. Geffner ME, Patel K, Miller TL, et al. Factors associated with insulin resistance among children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 in the pediatric HIV/AIDS cohort study. Hormone Research in Paediatrics. 2011;76(6):386-391. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042056.
  8. Rasmussen LD, Mathiesen ER, Kronborg G, Pedersen C, Gerstoft J, Obel N. Risk of diabetes mellitus in persons with and without HIV: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44575. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22984529.
  9. Feeney ER, Mallon PW. Insulin resistance in treated HIV infection. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2011;25(3):443-458. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21663838.
  10. Hazra R, Hance LF, Monteiro JP, et al. Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(7):757-759. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23360832.
  11. Patel K, Wang J, Jacobson DL, et al. Aggregate risk of cardiovascular disease among adolescents perinatally infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Circulation. 2014;129(11):1204-1212. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24366631.
  12. Hadigan C, Kattakuzhy S. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and abnormal glucose metabolism in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2014;43(3):685-696. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169561.
  13. Fortuny C, Deya-Martinez A, Chiappini E, Galli L, de Martino M, Noguera-Julian A. Metabolic and renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(5 Suppl 1):S36-43. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25629891.
  14. Loomba-Albrecht LA, Bregman T, Chantry CJ. Endocrinopathies in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2014;43(3):807-828. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169569.
  15. Innes S, Abdullah KL, Haubrich R, Cotton MF, Browne SH. High prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in HIV-infected pre-pubertal african children on antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26421804.
  16. American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39 Suppl 1:S13-22. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26696675.
  17. Espiau M, Yeste D, Noguera-Julian A, et al. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents living with HIV. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(6):e171-176. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26910591.
  18. Mirani G, Williams PL, Chernoff M, et al. Changing trends in complications and mortality rates among U.S. youth and young adults with HIV infection in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(12):1850-1861. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270680.

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