Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

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Regimens Recommended for Initial Therapy of Antiretroviral-Naive Children

Last Updated: April 16, 2019; Last Reviewed: April 16, 2019

Panel's Recommendations Regarding Regimens Recommended for Initial Therapy of Antiretroviral-Naive Children
Panel's Recommendations
  • The selection of an initial regimen should be individualized based on several factors, including the characteristics of the proposed regimen, the patient’s characteristics, drug efficacy, potential adverse effects, patient and family preferences, and the results of viral resistance testing (AIII).
  • For treatment-naive children, the Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of Children Living with HIV (the Panel) recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy with three drugs: a dual-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone plus an integrase strand transfer inhibitor, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a boosted protease inhibitor (AI*).
  • Table 7 provides a list of Panel-recommended regimens that are designated as Preferred or Alternative; recommendations vary by a patient’s age, weight, and sexual maturity rating.
Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Optional

Rating of Evidence: I = One or more randomized trials in childrenwith clinical outcomes and/or validated endpoints; I* = One or more randomized trials in adults with clinical outcomes and/or validated laboratory endpoints with accompanying data in childrenfrom one or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes; II = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies in children with long-term outcomes; II* = One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational studies in adults with long-term clinical outcomes with accompanying data in children from one or more similar nonrandomized trials or cohort studies with clinical outcome data; III = Expert opinion

Studies that include children or children/adolescents, but not studies limited to post-pubertal adolescents

Criteria Used for Recommendations

In general, the recommendations of the Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of Children Living with HIV (the Panel) are based on reviews of pediatric and adult clinical trial data published in peer-reviewed journals, data prepared by manufacturers for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review, and data presented in abstract format at major scientific meetings. Few randomized, Phase 3 clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pediatric patients have directly compared different treatment regimens. Most pediatric drug data come from Phase 1/2 safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) trials and nonrandomized, open-label studies. In general, even in studies of adults, assessment of drug efficacy and potency is primarily based on surrogate marker endpoints, such as CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count and HIV RNA levels. The Panel continually modifies recommendations on optimal initial therapy for children as new data become available, new therapies or drug formulations are developed, and additional toxicities are recognized.

When developing recommendations for specific drugs or regimens, the Panel considers the following information:

  • Data demonstrating durable viral suppression, immunologic improvement, and clinical improvement (when such data are available) with the regimen, preferably in children as well as adults;
  • The extent of pediatric experience with a specific drug or regimen;
  • Incidence and types of short-term and long-term drug toxicity in people who are taking the regimen, focusing on toxicities that are reported in children;
  • Availability and acceptability of formulations that are appropriate for pediatric use, including palatability, ease of preparation (e.g., syrups vs. powders), pill size, and the number of pills or volume of oral solution needed for an appropriate dose;
  • Dosing frequency and food and fluid requirements; and
  • Potential for drug interactions with other medications.

The Panel classifies recommended drugs or drug combinations into one of two categories:

  • Preferred: Drugs or drug combinations are designated as Preferred for use in treatment-naive children when clinical trial data in children or, more often, in adults have demonstrated optimal and durable efficacy with acceptable toxicity and ease of use, and pediatric studies using surrogate markers have demonstrated safety and efficacy. Additional considerations are listed above.
  • Alternative: Drugs or drug combinations are designated as Alternative for initial therapy when clinical trial data in children or adults show efficacy, but the drugs and drug combinations have disadvantages when compared with Preferred regimens. These disadvantages include: more limited experience with use of the drugs or regimen in children than in adults; the extent of antiviral efficacy or durability is less well defined in children, or the drug or regimen is less effective or durable than a Preferred regimen in adults; there are specific toxicity concerns; or there are dosing, formulation, administration, or interaction issues for that drug or regimen.

Factors to Consider When Selecting an Initial Regimen

An ART regimen for children should generally consist of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus an active drug from one of the following classes: integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI). Choice of a regimen should be individualized based on several factors, including the characteristics of the proposed regimen; the patient’s age, weight, sexual maturity rating (SMR), and other characteristics; and the results of viral resistance testing. Drug recommendations often include both age and weight limitations. Although age can be used as a rough guide, body weight (when available) is the preferred determinant for selecting a specific drug. An exception to this guide is for infants who are less than 14 days of age. Many drugs that are recommended for use in very young infants do not have dosing recommendations for premature infants. Additional information regarding dosing recommendations in this population can be found in Antiretroviral Management of Newborns with Perinatal HIV Exposure or Perinatal HIV. The advantages and disadvantages of each regimen are described in detail in the sections that follow and in Table 8. Additional information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of specific drug combinations can be found in the What to Start section of the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines. Specific information about the clinical efficacy, adverse events (AEs), and dosing recommendations for each drug can be found in Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information. In addition, because ART will most likely need to be administered throughout the patient’s life, clinicians should consider potential barriers to adherence. These barriers may include complex dosing schedules, food requirements, the need to use multiple formulations to achieve an appropriate dose, palatability problems, and potential limitations in subsequent treatment options, should resistance develop. Treatment should only be initiated after the patient has been assessed and the clinician has counseled the patient and caregivers about adherence to therapy.

Emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) have antiviral activity and efficacy against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and should be considered for use in children with HBV/HIV coinfection. For a comprehensive review of this topic, as well as a review of hepatitis C and tuberculosis in patients with HIV, see the Pediatric Opportunistic Infection Guidelines.

Choosing an Initial Antiretroviral Regimen for Children with HIV

Preferred regimens for initial therapy include INSTI-based, NNRTI-based, or boosted PI-based regimens. A regimen should be chosen after considering the patient’s individual characteristics (especially age), the results of viral drug resistance testing, drug efficacy, potential AEs, pill size, and dosing frequency. Adherence to a prescribed regimen is necessary; therefore, the preferences of the patient and caregivers should also be considered when choosing a regimen.

Clinical trial data in children provide some guidance for choosing between an NNRTI-based regimen and a PI-based regimen for initial therapy. Three pediatric studies have compared an NNRTI-based regimen to a PI-based regimen, and results varied based on the age of the population studied and the specific drug used within the class.

  • The P1060 study demonstrated the superiority of a lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based regimen over a nevirapine-based regimen in infants and children aged 2 months to 35 months, regardless of maternal or infant exposure to peripartum, single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis. In children with prior nevirapine exposure, 21.7% of children receiving the LPV/r-based regimen experienced death, virologic failure, or toxicity by Week 24 compared to 39.6% of children receiving the nevirapine-based regimen. For children with no prior nevirapine exposure, death, virologic failure, and toxicity occurred in 18.4% of children receiving the LPV/r-based regimen and 40.1% of children receiving the nevirapine-based regimen.1
  • Those in the nevirapine group demonstrated greater, but not statistically significant, improvements in CD4 counts and growth parameters. However, improvements in CD4 cell counts were only maintained up to 1 year after initiation of ART.2 Similar improved immune and growth parameters were also reported in the NEVEREST study, where these parameters were compared in children who switched to a nevirapine-containing regimen and those who continued on a LPV/r-containing regimen after achieving virologic suppression.3 Improvements in metabolic parameters have also been seen in children who switched from LPV/r to efavirenz at or after 3 years of age.4
  • PENPACT-1 (PENTA 9/PACTG 390) compared a PI-based regimen and a NNRTI-based regimen in treatment-naive children aged 30 days to <18 years (the study did not dictate the specific NNRTI or PI). In the PI-based regimen group, 49% of children received LPV/r and 48% received nelfinavir; in the NNRTI-based regimen group, 61% of children received efavirenz and 38% received nevirapine. After 4 years of follow-up, 73% of children who were randomized to receive PI-based therapy and 70% who were randomized to receive NNRTI-based therapy remained on their initial ART regimen. In both groups, 82% of children had viral loads <400 copies/mL.5
  • The PROMOTE-pediatrics trial demonstrated comparable virologic efficacy among children who were randomized to receive either an NNRTI-based or a LPV/r-based ART regimen.6 Children were aged 2 months to <6 years and had no perinatal exposure to nevirapine. Selection of the NNRTI was based on age (children aged <3 years received nevirapine, and those aged >3 years primarily received efavirenz). The proportion of children with HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL at 48 weeks was 80% in the LPV/r arm versus 76% in the NNRTI arm, a difference of 4% that was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval [CI], -9% to +17%).

Clinical investigation of INSTI-based regimens in children has been limited to noncomparative studies that have evaluated the safety, tolerability, and PKs of these drugs. The recommendation for using an INSTI as part of an initial regimen is based largely on extrapolation from adult comparative trials that showed that INSTI-containing regimens have superior efficacy when compared to PI-containing and NNRTI-containing regimens7,8 and small studies in ART-naive adolescents.9

When combined with two NRTIs, the following drugs and drug combinations are considered Preferred regimens for children:

  • Children aged <14 days: Nevirapine
  • Children aged <14 days and weighing ≥2 kg: Raltegravir
  • Children aged ≥14 days to <3 years: LPV/r or raltegravir
  • Children aged ≥3 years and
    • Weighing <25 kg: Atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), twice-daily darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), or raltegravir
    • Weighing ≥25 kg: Dolutegravir
    • Weighing ≥25 kg: Elvitegravir/cobicistat (only the fixed-dose combination [FDC] elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF is recommended at this time)

Alternative regimens are shown in Table 7 below.

Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor-Based Regimens

Four INSTIs—bictegravir, dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir—are approved by the FDA for treating antiretroviral (ARV)-naive adults with HIV. These agents have quickly become the recommended regimens in adults because of their virologic efficacy, lack of drug interactions, and favorable toxicity profile. Raltegravir is approved for the treatment of infants and children from birth onwards with weights ≥2 kg. Dolutegravir is approved for use in children weighing ≥30 kg. Elvitegravir has been studied in adolescents in two FDC regimens and in combination with two NRTIs and ritonavir boosting. The use of bictegravir in children and adolescents is currently being investigated; for more information, see What Not to Start. Table 8 lists the advantages and disadvantages of using INSTIs. See Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information for detailed pediatric information on each drug.

Dolutegravir

The FDA has approved dolutegravir for use in children weighing ≥30 kg. The approval was supported by data from a study of 46 treatment-experienced (but INSTI-naive) adolescents9,10 and 11 treatment-experienced (but INSTI-naive) children aged ≥6 years.11 The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using dolutegravir in children weighing ≥25 kg. This recommendation is based on PK and safety data from two ongoing clinical trials (IMPAACT P1093 and ODYSSEY). The Panel agrees with the WHO assessment that dolutegravir can be used in children weighing ≥25 kg (see the dolutegravir section); it has a very favorable safety profile and can be given once daily to treat INSTI-naive patients. Studies of dolutegravir are ongoing in children as young as 4 weeks of age.12

In a prospective surveillance study of birth outcomes among pregnant women on ART in Botswana, an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) was observed among infants born to women who were receiving dolutegravir at the time of conception.13,14 These findings should be considered when deciding on an ART regimen for female adolescents of childbearing potential. Specific recommendations about the initiation and use of dolutegravir in women of childbearing potential and in pregnant women are available in the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines (see Table 6b and Adolescents and Young Adults with HIV) and in the Perinatal Guidelines (see Teratogenicity and Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy).

Recommendation:

  • Dolutegravir plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as a Preferred INSTI-based regimen for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg (AI*). The Panel bases this recommendation on the virologic potency and safety profile observed for this combination in adult and pediatric studies.7,9,15
  • Dolutegravir is not recommended for use in adolescents and women who are trying to conceive or who may become pregnant, due to concerns about a possible increased risk of NTDs.

Elvitegravir

Elvitegravir is an INSTI that is available as a single-drug tablet, an FDC tablet that contains elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TDF, and an FDC tablet that contains elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF. Both FDC tablets are approved by the FDA for use in ART-naive adults with HIV. Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF is approved for use in ART-naive children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg. Cobicistat is a specific, potent cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibitor that has no activity against HIV and is used as a PK enhancer, which allows for once-daily dosing of elvitegravir.

Recommendation:

  • Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF is recommended as a Preferred INSTI-based regimen for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg who have creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥30 mL/min (AI*). The Panel bases this recommendation on the virologic potency and safety profile observed for this combination in adult and adolescent studies.16-21

Raltegravir

Raltegravir is approved by the FDA for treatment of infants and children weighing ≥2 kg, and it can be used starting at birth. It is available in film-coated tablets, chewable tablets, and single use packets of granules for oral suspension. Clinicians should consult with an expert in pediatric HIV infection when initiating raltegravir-based treatment regimens in neonates, infants, and very young children. Additional information can be found in Antiretroviral Management of Newborns with Perinatal HIV Exposure or Perinatal HIV.

Recommendation:

  • Raltegravir plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as a Preferred INSTI-based regimen for infants and children from birth to age 3 years who weigh ≥2 kg and for children aged ≥3 years and weighing <25 kg.(AI*). It is an Alternative INSTI-based regimen for children aged ≥3 years and weighing ≥25 kg (AI*). The Panel bases this recommendation on data from randomized clinical trials in adults, and pediatric studies that were performed largely in ARV-experienced children and adolescents.7,22-29 The Panel acknowledges that data regarding the efficacy of this agent in those aged <2 years are currently very limited.30
  • At this time, the Panel does not recommend once-daily dosing for initial therapy in children and infants.

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Regimens

Efavirenz (for children aged ≥3 months), etravirine (for children aged ≥6 years), nevirapine (for children aged ≥15 days), and rilpivirine (for children aged ≥12 years) have been approved by the FDA for treatment of HIV infection in pediatric patients. NNRTIs have a long half-life that allows for less-frequent drug administration, a lower risk of dyslipidemia and fat maldistribution than some agents in the PI class, and, generally, a lower pill burden than PIs. However, a single viral mutation can confer high-level drug resistance to all NNRTIs except etravirine, and cross-resistance to other NNRTIs is common. Rare, but serious and potentially life-threatening, skin and hepatic toxicity can occur with the use of all NNRTI drugs, but these AEs are most frequently observed in patients taking nevirapine, at least among adults with HIV. NNRTIs have the potential to interact with other drugs that are also metabolized via hepatic enzymes; however, these drug interactions are less frequent with NNRTIs than with boosted-PI regimens. Table 8 lists the advantages and disadvantages of using NNRTIs. See Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information for detailed pediatric information for each drug.

Efavirenz

Although efavirenz dosing recommendations are available for patients aged ≥3 months and weighing ≥3.5 kg, the Panel does not endorse the use of this drug in infants and children aged 3 months to 3 years because the PKs of efavirenz in very young patients can be highly variable.

Recommendation:

  • Efavirenz plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as an Alternative NNRTI-based regimen for initial treatment of HIV in children aged ≥3 years (AI*). The Panel bases this recommendation on data from studies that evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of this drug in adults and children.15,22,31-49

Nevirapine

There are extensive clinical and safety data for the use of nevirapine in children with HIV, and nevirapine has shown ARV efficacy when used as a component in a variety of combination regimens.1,5,6,50-54 Nevirapine has also been used extensively as prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV transmission in young infants during the peripartum period and during breastfeeding. The safety and PKs of nevirapine have been studied at the low doses of the drug that are used for prophylaxis. There is currently less information available from studies in very young infants about the safety and PKs of the higher nevirapine doses that are necessary for treatment. Early testing of infants allows HIV infection to be confirmed before 14 days of age. In these cases, the Panel recommends the use of nevirapine as a Preferred NNRTI when a clinician plans to initiate treatment prior to age 14 days. However, there are currently no clinical trial data suggesting that initiating treatment within the first 14 days of life improves outcomes compared to starting after age 14 days. Clinicians should consult an expert in pediatric HIV infection when considering the use of nevirapine in infants aged <14 days. Additional considerations regarding the use of nevirapine in infants aged <14 days can be found in Antiretroviral Management of Newborns with Perinatal HIV Exposure or Perinatal HIV.

Recommendation:

  • Nevirapine plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as a Preferred NNRTI-based regimen in infants aged <14 days and an Alternative NNRTI-based regimen for children aged ≥14 days to <3 years (AI). A change from nevirapine to LPV/r should be considered after 14 days of life and a post-gestational age of 42 weeks, as LPV/r has better clinical outcomes than nevirapine in children aged <3 years. The Panel recommends switching from nevirapine to LPV/r in these patients because nevirapine is associated with rare occurrences of significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and rare (but potentially life-threatening) instances of hepatitis. Nevirapine also has a low barrier to resistance, and there is conflicting data about the virologic efficacy of nevirapine compared to Preferred regimens.1,5,6,52-64

Rilpivirine

Rilpivirine is currently available both as a single-drug tablet and a once-daily FDC tablet that contains emtricitabine/rilpivirine/TDF. The single-drug tablet is approved for use in adolescents aged ≥12 years.

Recommendation:

  • Rilpivirine plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as an Alternative NNRTI-based regimen for children and adolescents aged ≥12 years and weighing ≥35 kg who have HIV viral loads ≤100,000 copies/mL (AI*). The Panel bases this recommendation on the limited experience with rilpivirine in adolescents and the larger body of evidence in adults.38,65-69

Protease Inhibitor-Based Regimens

Advantages of PI-based regimens include excellent virologic potency and a high barrier to drug resistance (since multiple mutations are required for a patient to develop resistance). However, because PIs are metabolized via hepatic enzymes, these drugs have the potential for multiple drug interactions. They may also be associated with metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia, fat maldistribution, and insulin resistance. Factors to consider when selecting a PI-based regimen for treatment-naive children include virologic potency, dosing frequency, pill burden, food or fluid requirements, availability of palatable pediatric formulations, drug interaction profile, toxicity profile (particularly toxicities related to metabolic complications), the age of the child, and the availability of data regarding the use of the drug in children. Table 8 lists the advantages and disadvantages of using PIs. See Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information for detailed pediatric information on each drug.

Ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme and can be used in low doses as a PK booster when coadministered with some PIs, increasing drug exposure by prolonging the half-life of the boosted PI. Currently, only LPV/r is available as a coformulated product. In addition, the use of ritonavir boosting increases the risk of hyperlipidemia70 and drug interactions.

Preferred and Alternative PIs are presented in alphabetical order below.

Atazanavir/Ritonavir

Atazanavir is a once-daily PI that was approved by the FDA in March 2008 for use in combination with a two-NRTI backbone in children aged ≥6 years. Atazanavir is most often boosted with ritonavir. Approval was extended in 2014 for use in infants and children aged ≥3 months and weighing ≥5 kg. Atazanavir administered in combination with cobicistat has been approved by the FDA for use in adults. The use of this combination in children and adolescents is under investigation, but no data are currently available.71,72

Recommendation:

  • ATV/r plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as a Preferred PI-based regimen for children aged ≥3 years and weighing <25 kg, and as an Alternative PI-based regimen for children aged ≥3 months to <3 years and children aged ≥3 years and weighing ≥25 kg (AI*). This regimen has been shown to be virologically potency in adult and pediatric studies, and it has been well tolerated in pediatric studies. However, the oral powder formulations of ATV and RTV and the oral solution formulation of RTV can be cumbersome to administer.25,34,67,70,73-78
  • The Panel does not recommend the use of unboosted ATV.

Darunavir/Ritonavir

DRV/r is approved by the FDA for use in ARV-naive and ARV-experienced children aged ≥3 years and weighing ≥10 kg. In addition, once-daily dosing of DRV/r is approved for ARV-naive children aged ≥3 years and weighing ≥10 kg and ARV-experienced patients who do not have DRV resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing of DRV/r was investigated during a substudy of a twice-daily dosing trial in children aged 3 years to <12 years. This PK evaluation lasted only 2 weeks, after which the participants switched back to the twice-daily regimen.79 FDA dosing recommendations are based on PK models from this study, but this dose has never undergone trials for clinical efficacy in this age group. A more recent study also suggested that once-daily DRV/r dosing is acceptable for children and adolescents. In this study, the plasma concentration-time curve for DRV/r was substantially lower than the mean value observed in adults; however, trough levels were similar. Because of these findings, and due to the lack of more information about the efficacy of once-daily DRV/r dosing in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced children aged <12 years, the Panel recommends a twice-daily dose of DRV/r in children aged >3 years to <12 years.80

Recommendation:

  • DRV/r plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as a Preferred PI-based regimen for children aged ≥3 years and weighing ≥10 kg but <25 kg, and as an Alternative PI-based regimen for children aged ≥3 years and weighing ≥25 kg (AI*). The Panel bases these recommendations on the virologic potency shown by DRV/r in adult and pediatric studies, and this combination’s high barrier to development of drug resistance and excellent toxicity profile in adults and children.25,80-87
  • Based on findings from the DIONE study, once-daily dosing of DRV/r is part of an Alternative PI-based regimen in treatment-naive children and adolescents weighing ≥40 kg (AI*).
  • Twice-daily dosing of DRV/r should be used for children aged ≥3 years to <12 years.
  • Twice-daily dosing of DRV/r should be used if the following darunavir resistance-associated substitutions are present in the HIV protease: V11I, V32I, L33F, I47V, I50V, I54L, I54M, T74P, L76V, I84V, and L89V.

Lopinavir/Ritonavir

LPV/r is approved to treat HIV infection in infants and children with a postmenstrual age ≥42 weeks and postnatal age ≥14 days. Once-daily LPV/r dosing is approved by the FDA for initial therapy in adults,88 but PK data in children do not support a recommendation for once-daily dosing.89-91

Recommendation:

  • LPV/r plus a two-NRTI backbone is recommended as a Preferred PI-based regimen for infants with a postmenstrual age ≥42 weeks and postnatal age ≥14 days to <3 years (AI) and as an Alternative PI-based regimen in children aged ≥3 years (AI*). This regimen has been shown to be virologically potent in adult and pediatric studies and has been well tolerated in pediatric studies.15,36,73,74,81,88-90,92-96

Selection of Dual-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Backbone as Part of Initial Combination Therapy

Dual-NRTI combinations form the backbone of combination regimens for both adults and children. Currently, eight NRTIs (zidovudine, didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, abacavir, emtricitabine, TDF, and TAF) are approved by the FDA for use in children aged <13 years. Dual-NRTI combinations that have been studied in children include:

  • Zidovudine used in combination with abacavir, didanosine, or lamivudine
  • Abacavir used in combination with lamivudine, stavudine, or didanosine
  • Emtricitabine used in combination with stavudine or didanosine
  • TDF used in combination with lamivudine or emtricitabine
  • TAF used in combination with emtricitabine20,44,75,97-101

The Panel no longer recommends using didanosine or stavudine as part of ARV regimens for children due to the significant toxicities observed when using these drugs and the availability of safer agents. The advantages and disadvantages of different dual-NRTI backbone options that are recommended for initial therapy are listed in Table 8. See What Not to Start for more information. Also, see Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information for detailed pediatric information on each drug.

In the dual-NRTI regimens listed below, lamivudine and emtricitabine are interchangeable. Both lamivudine and emtricitabine are well tolerated and have few AEs. Emtricitabine is similar to lamivudine and can be substituted for lamivudine as one component of a preferred dual-NRTI backbone (i.e., emtricitabine used in combination with abacavir or TDF or zidovudine). The main advantage of emtricitabine over lamivudine is that it can be administered once-daily as part of an initial regimen. Both lamivudine and emtricitabine select for the M184V resistance mutation, which is associated with high-level resistance to both drugs, a modest decrease in susceptibility to abacavir, and improved susceptibility to zidovudine and TDF based on decreased viral fitness.102,103

Dual-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Backbone Regimens (in Alphabetical Order)

Abacavir in Combination with Lamivudine or Emtricitabine

Abacavir is approved for use in children aged ≥3 months when administered as part of an ART regimen.

Recommendation:

  • Abacavir plus lamivudine or emtricitabine is recommended as the Preferred dual-NRTI combination for children aged ≥3 months (AI). Studies of adults and children have reported virologic efficacy and favorable toxicity profiles for these combinations.23,104-111
  • Once-daily dosing of abacavir is recommended when using the pill formulation. Twice-daily dosing of liquid abacavir is recommended for initial therapy; a change to once-daily dosing can be considered for clinically stable patients with undetectable viral loads and stable CD4 cell counts.112-115

Tenofovir Alafenamide in Combination with Emtricitabine

TAF is an oral prodrug of tenofovir. It is approved by the FDA as a component of an FDC tablet that also contains elvitegravir, cobicistat, and emtricitabine for the treatment of HIV in ARV-naive individuals weighing ≥25 kg who have an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min. Additional safety and PK data are available for children aged 6 years to <12 years who are receiving this FDC tablet.21 An FDC tablet that contains emtricitabine/TAF (Descovy) is also available.

Recommendation:

  • Emtricitabine/TAF is recommended as a Preferred dual-NRTI combination in children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg who have estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min when this combination is used with an INSTI or NNRTI; this combination is considered a Preferred dual-NRTI combination when used with a PI in children and adolescents weighing ≥35 kg who have estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min (AI*). This combination is also recommended as a Preferred drug combination when used in the single-tablet regimen elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg (AI*). The Panel makes these recommendations because TAF has a lower risk of renal and bone AEs than TDF.18,116
  • Emtricitabine/TAF is neither approved by the FDA nor recommended for use in combination with a boosted PI in children weighing <35 kg, because this combination has not been adequately studied in this age and weight group.

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Combination with Lamivudine or Emtricitabine

TDF is approved by the FDA for use in children and adolescents aged ≥2 years when administered as part of an ART regimen. Decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed in adults and children receiving TDF, but the clinical significance of these decreases is unknown.98-101,117,118 Before starting treatment, clinicians should consider whether the benefits of using TDF outweigh the potential risks of decreased BMD.119

Recommendation:

  • TDF plus lamivudine or emtricitabine is recommended as an Alternative dual-NRTI combination for children aged ≥2 years to 12 years (AI*). The Panel bases this recommendation on the virologic efficacy and ease of dosing of these combinations.98-101,105-108,120-125

Zidovudine in Combination with Abacavir

Zidovudine plus abacavir had lower rates of viral suppression and a greater number of toxicities that lead to regimen modification than did abacavir plus lamivudine in a European pediatric study.97,104

Recommendation:

  • Zidovudine plus abacavir is recommended as an Alternative dual-NRTI combination for children aged ≥3 months (BII).

Zidovudine in Combination with Lamivudine or Emtricitabine

Zidovudine is available as a syrup, a capsule, and a tablet, and it is also available in injectable/intravenous preparations. It is approved by the FDA for treatment in infants aged ≥4 weeks and prophylaxis in newborns.

Recommendation:

  • Zidovudine plus lamivudine or emtricitabine is recommended as a Preferred dual-NRTI combination for infants and children from birth to age ≤6 years, and an Alternative combination in children aged ≥6 years and adolescents (AI*). The Panel bases these recommendations on the extensive experience and favorable safety profiles for these combinations. There is extensive experience with these dual-NRTI backbones in children, and they have been shown to have favorable safety profiles. However, twice-daily dosing is required for zidovudine in children aged ≥6 years. Other NRTIs that only require once-daily dosing in in children aged ≥6 years are available.109,126-128
  • Zidovudine plus abacavir is recommended as an Alternative dual-NRTI combination for use in children aged ≥3 months (BII). In children aged ≥6 years and adolescents who are not sexually mature (i.e., those with SMRs 1–3), the Panel recommends zidovudine plus lamivudine or emtricitabine as an Alternative dual-NRTI combination (BII).

Figure 1. Preferred and Alternative Regimens by Age and Drug Class

WhattoStart

a If treatment is scheduled to begin before a patient is aged 14 days, NVP or RAL are the Preferred agents because they are the only options with dosing information available for this age group. However, available clinical trial data does not suggest that initiating treatment within the first 14 days of life is more beneficial than starting treatment after 14 days of age. Additional considerations regarding the use of NVP or RAL in infants aged <14 days can be found in Antiretroviral Management of Newborns with Perinatal HIV Exposure or Perinatal HIV. Switching from NVP to LPV/r should be considered when the infant is aged ≥14 days with a postmenstrual age (the span of time between the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period and birth, plus the time elapsed after birth) of 42 weeks; LPV/r has produced better clinical outcomes in studies of children aged <3 years than NVP. Data are limited on the clinical outcomes of using RAL in infants and children aged <2 years.
LPV/r should not be administered to neonates before a postmenstrual age of 42 weeks and a postnatal age ≥14 days.
RAL can be used in infants weighing ≥2 kg. RAL pills or chewable tablets can be used in children aged ≥2 years. Granules can be administered to infants and children from birth to age 2 years.
d DTG is recommended only for use in children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg. For children weighing <25 kg, the use of RAL can be considered when an INSTI-based regimen is desired.
e EVG is currently recommended only as a component of FDC tablets. Tablets containing EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF are recommended as a Preferred regimen for children and adolescents weighing ≥35 kg, and as an Alternative regimen for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg.
f NVP should not be used in post-pubertal girls with CD4 cell counts >250/mm3, unless the benefit clearly outweighs the risk. NVP is approved by the FDA for the treatment of infants aged ≥15 days.
Once-daily DRV should not be used in children aged <12 years or weighing <40 kg. Once-daily DRV should also not be used if any one of the following resistance-associated substitutions are present: V11I, V32I, L33F, I47V, I50V, I54L, I54M, T74P, L76V, I84V, and L89V. DRV/r is recommended as an Alternative drug combination for children aged ≥6 years to <12 years, because there are other drugs that can be administered once daily. This combination is considered a Preferred option for adolescents aged ≥12 years with SMR 1–3 when once-daily administration is possible.

Key to Acronyms: ATV/r = atazanavir/ritonavir; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte; COBI = cobicistat; DRV = darunavir; DRV/r = darunavir/ritonavir; DTG = dolutegravir; EVG = elvitegravir; EVG/c = elvitegravir/cobicistat; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; FDC = fixed-dose combination; FTC = emtricitabine; INSTI = integrase strand transfer inhibitor; LPV/r = lopinavir/ritonavir; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI = nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP = nevirapine; PI = protease inhibitor; RAL = raltegravir; SMR = sexual maturity rating; TAF = tenofovir alafenamide

Table 7. Antiretroviral Regimens Recommended for Initial Therapy for HIV Infection in Children

An ART regimen for treatment-naive children is generally made up of a two-NRTI backbone and either one NNRTI or one INSTI or one PI boosted with RTV or COBI. Preferred regimens are designated based on efficacy, ease of administration, and acceptable toxicity. Alternative regimens have also demonstrated efficacy, but clinical experience with these regimens is limited or these regimens are more difficult to administer than Preferred regimens. Regimens should be tailored to the individual patient by weighing the advantages and disadvantages of each combination. Many agents have multiple formulations and age and weight recommendations. Please consult Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information for additional information and recommended dosages and formulations (see Table 8 below).

Children who are receiving effective and tolerable ART regimens can continue using those regimens as they age, even if the combinations they are receiving are no longer Preferred regimens.

Table 7. Antiretroviral Regimens Recommended for Initial Therapy for HIV Infection in Children
Preferred Regimens
Age Regimens FDC Available (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Infants, Birth to Age <14 Daysa,b Two NRTIs plus NVP No
Weight ≥2 kg Two NRTIs plus RALc No
Children Aged ≥14 Days to <3 Years Two NRTIs plus LPV/r No
Weight ≥2 kg Two NRTIs plus RALc No
Children Aged ≥3 Years Weight <25 kg Two NRTIs plus ATV/r No
Two NRTIs plus twice-daily DRV/rd No
Two NRTIs plus RALc No
Weight ≥25 kg Two NRTIs plus DTGf Yes
Two NRTIs plus EVG/COBIe Yes
Adolescents Aged ≥12 Years with SMR 4 or 5 Refer to the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines Yes
Alternative Regimens
Age Regimens FDC Available
Children Aged ≥14 Days to <3 Years Two NRTIs plus NVPg No
Children Aged ≥3 Months to <3 Years Two NRTIs plus ATV/r No
Children Aged ≥3 Years and Weighing ≥25 kg Two NRTIs plus ATV/r No
Two NRTIs plus DRV/rd No
Two NRTIs plus RALc No
Children Aged ≥3 Years Two NRTIs plus EFVh Noi
Two NRTIs plus LPV/r No
Adolescents Aged ≥12 Years with SMR 1–3 Weight ≥35 kg Two NRTIs plus RPVj Yes
Adolescents Aged ≥12 Years with SMR 4 or 5 Refer to the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines Yes
Preferred Dual-NRTI Backbone Options for Use in Combination with Other Drugs
Age Dual-NRTI Backbone Options FDC Available
Children, Birth to Age <3 Months ZDV plus (3TC or FTC)k No
Children Aged ≥3 Months to <6 Years ABC plus (3TC or FTC)l Yes
ZDV plus (3TC or FTC)k Yes
Children and Adolescents Aged ≥6 Years with SMR 1–3 ABC plus (3TC or FTC)l Yes
Weighing ≥25 kg and receiving a regimen that contains an INSTI or an NNRTI FTC/TAFm Yes
Adolescents Aged ≥12 Years with SMR 4 or 5 Refer to the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines Yes
Alternative Dual-NRTI Backbone Options for Use in Combination with Other Drugs
Age Dual-NRTI Backbone Options FDC Available
Children Aged ≥3 Months ZDV plus ABC No
Children Aged ≥2 Years to 12 Years TDF plus (3TC or FTC)n Yes
Children and Adolescents Aged ≥6 Years and SMR 1–3 ZDV plus (3TC or FTC)k Yes
aIf treatment is scheduled to begin before a patient is aged 14 days, NVP or RAL are Preferred agents because they are the only options with dosing information available for this age group. While many pediatric experts favor initiating ART as soon as possible after birth in order to limit the establishment of viral reservoirs, available clinical trial data does not suggest that initiating treatment within the first 14 days of life leads to better clinical outcomes than initiating treatment after 14 days of age. Clinicians should consult an expert in pediatric HIV infection before initiating treatment in infants aged <14 days. Additional considerations regarding the use of NVP or RAL in infants aged <14 days can be found in Antiretroviral Management of Newborns with Perinatal HIV Exposure or Perinatal HIV. Switching from NVP to LPV/r should be considered when the infant is aged ≥14 days with a postmenstrual age of 42 weeks (the span of time between the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period and birth, plus the time elapsed after birth); LPV/r has produced better clinical outcomes in studies of children aged <3 years than NVP. Data are limited on the clinical outcomes of using RAL in infants and children aged <2 years.
b LPV/r should not be administered to neonates before a postmenstrual age of 42 weeks and postnatal age ≥14 days.
c RAL pills or chewable tablets can be used in children aged ≥2 years. Granules can be administered in infants and children from birth to age 2 years. No dosing information is available for preterm infants or those with a weight of < 2 kg at birth.
d DRV should only be used in children weighing ≥10 kg. Once-daily DRV should not be used in children aged <12 years or weighing <40 kg. Once-daily DRV should also not be used when any one of the following resistance-associated substitutions are present: V11I, V32I, L33F, I47V, I50V, I54L, I54M, T74P, L76V, I84V, and L89V. DRV/r is recommended as an Alternative drug combination for children aged ≥6 years to <12 years and weighing >25 kg, because there are other drugs that can be administered once daily and that are better tolerated. Note that DRV/r can be administered once daily in adolescents aged ≥12 years and weighing ≥40 kg who are not sexually mature (SMR 1–3).
e EVG is currently recommended only as a component of FDC tablets. Tablets containing EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF are recommended as a Preferred regimen for children and adolescents weighing ≥35 kg, and as an Alternative regimen for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg.
f DTG is recommended as a Preferred agent for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg. An FDC tablet containing ABC/DTG/3TC (Triumeq) is available.
g NVP should not be used in post-pubertal girls with CD4 cell counts >250/mm3, unless the benefit clearly outweighs the risk. NVP is approved by the FDA for treatment of infants aged ≥15 days.
EFV is approved by the FDA for use in children aged ≥3 months and weighing ≥3.5 kg, but it is not recommended by the Panel for initial therapy in children aged ≥3 months to 3 years. An FDC tablet containing EFV/FTC/TDF (Atripla) and EFV 600 mg/3TC/TDF (Symfi) is available. See efavirenz section for information about use of the FDC EFV 400 mg/3TC TDF (Symfi Lo).
i FDA-approved FDCs are not included in this table when they are not approved for use in the specific patient populations being discussed.
RPV should be administered to adolescents aged ≥12 years and weighing ≥35 kg who have initial viral loads ≤100,000 copies/mL. FDC tablets containing FTC/RPV/TAF (Odefsey) and FTC/RPV/TDF (Complera) are available.
An FDC containing 3TC/ZDV (Combivir and generic) is available.
l An FDC containing ABC/3TC (Epzicom and generic) is available.
m FTC/TAF is recommended as a Preferred combination for children and adolescents weighing ≥25 kg; an FDC containing FTC/TAF is available. FTC/TAF is approved by the FDA for children weighing ≥25 kg when used in the single-tablet regimen EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or as TAF/FTC in combination with an NNRTI or INSTI. FTC/TAF plus a boosted PI is only recommended for use in children and adolescents weighing ≥35 kg.
An FDC containing FTC/TDF (Truvada) is available.

Key to Acronyms: 3TC = lamivudine; ABC = abacavir; ATV/r = atazanavir/ritonavir; ART = antiretroviral therapy; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte; COBI = cobicistat; DRV = darunavir; DRV/r = darunavir/ritonavir; DTG = dolutegravir; EFV = efavirenz; EVG = elvitegravir; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; FDC = fixed-dose combination; FTC = emtricitabine; INSTI = integrase strand transfer inhibitor; LPV/r = lopinavir/ritonavir; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI = nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP = nevirapine; PI = protease inhibitor; RAL = raltegravir; RPV = rilpivirine; SMR = sexual maturity rating; TAF = tenofovir alafenamide; TDF = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; ZDV = zidovudine

Table 8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Antiretroviral Components Recommended for Initial Therapy in Children

See Appendix A: Pediatric Antiretroviral Drug Information and Table 7. Antiretroviral Regimen Considerations for Initial Therapy Based on Specific Clinical Scenarios in the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines for more information.

Table 8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Antiretroviral Components Recommended for Initial Therapy in Children
ARV Class ARV Agent(s) Advantages Disadvantages
INSTIs
In Alphabetical Order
All INSTIs INSTI Class Advantages:
  • Few drug-drug interactions
  • Well-tolerated
INSTI Class Disadvantages:
  • Limited data on pediatric dosing or safety
DTG Once-daily administration

Can give with food

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)

Single-agent DTG pills are available in several dosages and are small in size.
Drug interactions with EFV, FPV/r, TPV/r, and rifampin, necessitating twice-daily dosing of DTG

CNS side effects, particularly sleep disturbances and possible increased risk of neural tube defects in infants born to women who were receiving dolutegravir at the time of conception
EVG Once-daily administration

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Among INSTIs, EVG has the lowest barrier to the development of resistance.

If EVG is administered with COBI, there is potential for multiple drug interactions because COBI is metabolized by hepatic enzymes (e.g., CYP3A4).

COBI inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine, and this may result in increased serum creatinine but normal glomerular clearance.
RAL Can give with food

Available in tablet, chewable tablet, and powder formulations

Once-daily administration (with RAL HD) can be used for treatment-naive or virologically suppressed children weighing ≥50 kg.
Potential for rare systemic allergic reaction or hepatitis

Granule formulation requires a multistep preparation before administration; caregiver must be taught how to properly prepare this formulation.
NNRTIs
In Alphabetical Order
All NNRTIs NNRTI Class Advantages:
  • Long half-life
  • Lower risk of dyslipidemia and fat maldistribution than PIs
  • PI-sparing
  • Lower pill burden than PIs for children taking the solid formulation; easier to use and adhere to than PI-based regimens
NNRTI Class Disadvantages:
  • A single mutation can confer resistance, with cross-resistance between EFV and NVP.
  • Rare but serious and potentially life-threatening cases of skin rash, including SJS, and hepatic toxicity. All NNRTIs pose this risk, but the risk is greatest with NVP.
  • Potential for multiple drug interactions due to metabolism via hepatic enzymes (e.g., CYP3A4)
EFV Once-daily administration

Available in the FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)

Potent ARV activity

Can give with food (but avoid high-fat meals)

Capsules can be opened and added to food.
Neuropsychiatric AEs (bedtime dosing is recommended to reduce CNS effects)

Rash (generally mild)

No commercially available liquid formulation

Limited data on dosing for children aged <3 years

No data on dosing for children aged <3 months
NVP Liquid formulation is available.

Dosing information for young infants is available.

Can give with food

Extended-release formulation is available that allows for once-daily dosing in older children.
Reduced virologic efficacy in young infants, regardless of exposure to NVP as part of a peripartum preventive regimen

Higher incidence of rash/HSR than other NNRTIs

Higher rates of serious hepatic toxicity than EFV

Decreased virologic response compared with EFV

Twice-daily dosing necessary in children with BSA <0.58 m2

Low barrier for resistance
RPV Once-daily dosing

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Should not use in patients with HIV viral loads >100,000 copies/mL

Must be taken with a ≥500 kcal meal at a consistent time each day; this may affect adherence.

Low barrier for resistance
PIs
In Alphabetical Order
All PIs PI Class Advantages:
  • NNRTI-sparing
  • Clinical, virologic, and immunologic efficacy are well-documented.
  • Resistance to PIs requires multiple mutations.
  • When combined with a dual-NRTI backbone, a regimen containing a PI targets HIV at two steps of viral replication by inhibiting the activity of viral reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes.
PI Class Disadvantages:
  • Metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia, fat maldistribution, and insulin resistance
  • Potential for multiple drug interactions because of metabolism via hepatic enzymes (e.g., CYP3A4)
  • Higher pill burden than NRTI-based or NNRTI-based regimens for patients taking solid formulations
  • Poor palatability of liquid preparations, which may affect adherence
  • Most PIs require RTV boosting, resulting in drug interactions that are associated with RTV.
Boosted ATV Once-daily dosing

Powder formulation is available.

ATV has less effect on TG and total cholesterol levels than other PIs (but RTV boosting may be associated with elevations in these parameters).
No liquid formulation

Should be administered with food

Indirect hyperbilirubinemia is common, but asymptomatic. Scleral icterus may be distressing to the patient, which may affect adherence.

Must be used with caution in patients with preexisting conduction system defects (can prolong PR interval of ECG).

RTV is associated with a large number of drug interactions.
Boosted DRV Can be used once daily in children aged ≥12 years

Liquid formulation is available.

DRV requires a boosting agent.

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Pediatric pill burden high with current tablet dose formulations

Should be administered with food

Must be boosted to achieve adequate plasma concentrations

Contains sulfa moiety. The potential for cross-sensitivity between DRV and other drugs in sulfonamide class is unknown.

RTV is associated with a large number of drug interactions.

Can only be used once daily in the absence of certain PI-associated resistance mutations
LPV/r LPV is only available coformulated with RTV in liquid and tablet formulations.

Tablets can be given without regard to food, but they may be better tolerated when taken with meal or snack.
Poor palatability of liquid formulation (bitter taste), although the palatability of the FDC is better than RTV alone

Liquid formulation should be administered with food.

RTV is associated with a large number of drug interactions.

Should not be administered to neonates before a postmenstrual age (the span of time between the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period and birth, plus the time elapsed after birth) of 42 weeks and a postnatal age ≥14 days

Must be used with caution in patients with pre-existing conduction system defects (can prolong PR and QT interval of ECG)
Dual-NRTI Backbones
In Alphabetical Order
ABC plus (3TC or FTC) Palatable liquid formulations

Can give with food

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Risk of ABC HSR; perform HLA-B*5701 screening before initiation of ABC treatment.
FTC/TAF for children aged ≥6 years Once-daily dosing

Small tablet size

Lower risk of TFV-associated renal and bone toxicity with TAF than with TDF in adults

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Limited data on the safety and efficacy of this combination in children

Increased lipid levels
TDF plus (3TC or FTC) for adolescents with SMR 4 or 5 Once-daily dosing for TDF

Resistance is slow to develop.

Lower risk of mitochondrial toxicity than other NRTIs

Can give with food

Available as reduced-strength tablets and oral powder for use in younger children

Available in FDC tablets (see Fixed-Dose Combinations)
Limited pediatric experience

Potential bone and renal toxicity

Appropriate dosing is complicated by numerous drug-drug interactions with other ARV agents, including ddI, LPV/r, ATV, and TPV.
ZDV plus (3TC or FTC) Extensive pediatric experience

Coformulations of ZDV and 3TC are available (Combivir and generic) for children weighing ≥30 kg.

Palatable liquid formulations

Can give with food

FTC is available as a palatable liquid formulation that can be administered once daily.
Bone marrow suppression with ZDV

Lipoatrophy with ZDV
ZDV plus ABC Palatable liquid formulations

Can give with food
Risk of ABC HSRs; perform HLA-B*5701 screening before initiation of ABC treatment.

Bone marrow suppression and lipoatrophy with ZDV
Key to Acronyms: 3TC = lamivudine; ABC = abacavir; AE = adverse event; ARV = antiretroviral; ATV = atazanavir; BSA = body surface area; CNS = central nervous system; COBI = cobicistat; CYP = cytochrome P450; ddI = didanosine; DRV = darunavir; DTG = dolutegravir; ECG = electrocardiogram; EFV = efavirenz; EVG = elvitegravir; FDC = fixed-dose combination; FPV/r = fosamprenavir/ritonavir; FTC = emtricitabine; HSR = hypersensitivity reaction; INSTI = integrase strand transfer inhibitor; LPV = lopinavir; LPV/r = lopinavir/ritonavir; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI = nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP = nevirapine; PI = protease inhibitor; RAL = raltegravir; RPV = rilpivirine; RTV = ritonavir; SJS = Stevens-Johnson Syndrome; SMR = sexual maturity rating; TAF = tenofovir alafenamide; TDF = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; TFV= tenofovir; TG = triglycerides; TPV = tipranavir; TPV/r = tipranavir/ritonavir; ZDV = zidovudine

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