Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Gastrointestinal Effects

Last Updated: April 27, 2017; Last Reviewed: April 27, 2017


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  8. Heiser CR, Ernst JA, Barrett JT, French N, Schutz M, Dube MP. Probiotics, soluble fiber, and L-Glutamine (GLN) reduce nelfinavir (NFV)- or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-related diarrhea. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care. 2004;3(4):121-129. Available at
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  10. Wegzyn CM, Fredrick LM, Stubbs RO, Woodward WC, Norton M. Diarrhea associated with lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy: results of a meta-analysis of 1469 HIV-1-infected participants. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2012;11(4):252-259. Available at
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  14. Strehlau R, Donati AP, Arce PM, et al. PRINCE-1: safety and efficacy of atazanavir powder and ritonavir liquid in HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive and -experienced infants and children aged >/=3 months to <6 years. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18:19467. Available at
  15. Clay PG, Crutchley RD. Noninfectious diarrhea in HIV seropositive individuals: a review of prevalence rates, etiology, and management in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Ther. 2014. Available at
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