Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Hematologic Effects

Last Updated: May 22, 2018; Last Reviewed: May 22, 2018


  1. Najean Y, Rain JD. The mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with HIV infection. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 1994;123(3):415-420. Available at
  2. Scaradavou A, Woo B, Woloski BM, et al. Intravenous anti-D treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura: experience in 272 patients. Blood. 1997;89(8):2689-2700. Available at
  3. Lahoz R, Noguera A, Rovira N, et al. Antiretroviral-related hematologic short-term toxicity in healthy infants: implications of the new neonatal 4-week zidovudine regimen. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(4):376-379. Available at
  4. Dryden-Peterson S, Shapiro RL, Hughes MD, et al. Increased risk of severe infant anemia after exposure to maternal HAART, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56(5):428-436. Available at
  5. Mocroft A, Lifson AR, Touloumi G, et al. Haemoglobin and anaemia in the SMART study. Antivir Ther. 2011;16(3):329-337. Available at
  6. Nyesigire Ruhinda E, Bajunirwe F, Kiwanuka J. Anaemia in HIV-infected children: severity, types and effect on response to HAART. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:170. Available at
  7. Esan MO, Jonker FA, Hensbroek MB, Calis JC, Phiri KS. Iron deficiency in children with HIV-associated anaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106(10):579-587. Available at
  8. Nielsen-Saines K, Watts DH, Veloso VG, et al. Three postpartum antiretroviral regimens to prevent intrapartum HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(25):2368-2379. Available at
  9. Renner LA, Dicko F, Koueta F, et al. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16(1):18024. Available at
  10. Arrow Trial team, Kekitiinwa A, Cook A, et al. Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring and first-line antiretroviral therapy strategies in African children with HIV (ARROW): a 5-year open-label randomised factorial trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9875):1391-1403. Available at
  11. Bunupuradah T, Kariminia A, Chan KC, et al. Incidence and predictors of severe anemia in Asian HIV-infected children using first-line antiretroviral therapy. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17(10):e806-810. Available at
  12. Singh A, Hemal A, Agarwal S, Dubey N, Buxi G. A prospective study of haematological changes after switching from stavudine to zidovudine-based antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children. Int J STD AIDS. 2014. Available at
  13. Van Dyke RB, Wang L, Williams PL, Pediatric ACTGCT. Toxicities associated with dual nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor regimens in HIV-infected children. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(11):1599-1608. Available at
  14. Smith C, Forster JE, Levin MJ, et al. Serious adverse events are uncommon with combination neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis: a retrospective case review. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0127062. Available at
  15. Smith C, Weinberg A, Forster JE, et al. Maternal lopinavir/ritonavir is associated with fewer adverse events in infants than nelfinavir or atazanavir. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2016;2016:9848041. Available at
  16. Shet A, Bhavani PK, Kumarasamy N, et al. Anemia, diet and therapeutic iron among children living with HIV: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:164. Available at
  17. Kibaru EG, Nduati R, Wamalwa D, Kariuki N. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya: retrospective study. AIDS Res Ther. 2015;12:26. Available at
  18. Mulenga V, Musiime V, Kekitiinwa A, et al. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(2):169-179. Available at
  19. Lau E, Brophy J, Samson L, et al. Nevirapine pharmacokinetics and safety in neonates receiving combination antiretroviral therapy for prevention of vertical HIV transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(5):493-498. Available at
  20. The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration Study Group in EuroCoord. Safety of zidovudine/lamivudine scored tablets in children with HIV infection in Europe and Thailand. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2017;73(4):463-468.

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