Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Insulin Resistance, Asymptomatic Hyperglycemia, Diabetes Mellitus

Last Updated: April 27, 2017; Last Reviewed: April 27, 2017


  1. Bitnun A, Sochett E, Dick PT, et al. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in protease inhibitor-treated and -naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2005;90(1):168-174. Available at
  2. Hadigan C. Insulin resistance among HIV-infected patients: unraveling the mechanism. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(9):1341-1342. Available at
  3. Morse CG, Kovacs JA. Metabolic and skeletal complications of HIV infection: the price of success. JAMA. 2006;296(7):844-854. Available at
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  10. Hazra R, Hance LF, Monteiro JP, et al. Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(7):757-759. Available at
  11. Patel K, Wang J, Jacobson DL, et al. Aggregate risk of cardiovascular disease among adolescents perinatally infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Circulation. 2014;129(11):1204-1212. Available at
  12. Hadigan C, Kattakuzhy S. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and abnormal glucose metabolism in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2014;43(3):685-696. Available at
  13. Fortuny C, Deya-Martinez A, Chiappini E, Galli L, de Martino M, Noguera-Julian A. Metabolic and renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(5 Suppl 1):S36-43. Available at
  14. Loomba-Albrecht LA, Bregman T, Chantry CJ. Endocrinopathies in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2014;43(3):807-828. Available at
  15. Innes S, Abdullah KL, Haubrich R, Cotton MF, Browne SH. High prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in HIV-infected pre-pubertal african children on antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015. Available at
  16. American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39 Suppl 1:S13-22. Available at
  17. Espiau M, Yeste D, Noguera-Julian A, et al. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents living with HIV. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(6):e171-176. Available at
  18. Mirani G, Williams PL, Chernoff M, et al. Changing trends in complications and mortality rates among U.S. youth and young adults with HIV infection in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(12):1850-1861. Available at

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