Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis

Last Updated: April 16, 2019; Last Reviewed: April 16, 2019

References

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  2. Aurpibul L, Cressey TR, Sricharoenchai S, et al. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in virologic-suppressed HIV-infected children using weight-band dosing. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(4):392-397. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25760566.
  3. Bachrach LK, Gordon CM, Section On Endocrinology. Bone densitometry in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2016;138(4). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27669735.
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  7. Eckard AR, O'Riordan MA, Rosebush JC, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density and bone markers in HIV-infected youth. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;76(5):539-546. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28902705.
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  9. Havens PL, Stephensen CB, Van Loan MD, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(2):220-228. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29020329.
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  11. Jacobson DL, Lindsey JC, Gordon CM, et al. Total body and spinal bone mineral density across Tanner stage in perinatally HIV-infected and uninfected children and youth in PACTG 1045. AIDS. 2010;24(5):687-696. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20168204.
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  14. Kizito H, Gaur A, Prasitsuebsai W, et al. Changes in renal laboratory parameters and bone mineral density in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adolescents initiating therapy with INSTI-based single-tablet regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Presented at: The 21st International AIDS Conference. 2016. Durban, South Africa.
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  19. Okonkwo RI, Weidmann AE, Effa EE. Renal and bone adverse effects of a tenofovir-based regimen in the treatment of HIV-infected children: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2016;39(3):209-218. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26692394.
  20. Overton ET, Chan ES, Brown TT, et al. Vitamin D and calcium attenuate bone loss With antiretroviral therapy initiation: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(12):815-824. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075752.
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  22. Puthanakit T, Saksawad R, Bunupuradah T, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of low bone mineral density among perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;61(4):477-483. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22918157.
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  24. Puthanakit T, Wittawatmongkol O, Poomlek V, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral accrual among HIV-infected Thai adolescents with low bone mineral density. J Virus Erad. 2018;4(1):6-11. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29568546.
  25. Ross AC. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(5):938-939. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21492489.
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  27. Tebas P, Kumar P, Hicks C, et al. Greater change in bone turnover markers for efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy-naive adults over 144 weeks. AIDS. 2015;29(18):2459-2464. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355674.
  28. Schall JI, Hediger ML, Zemel BS, Rutstein RM, Stallings VA. Comprehensive safety monitoring of 12-month daily 7000-IU vitamin D3 supplementation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children and young adults. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016;40(7):1057-1063. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160254.
  29. Dougherty KA, Schall JI, Zemel BS, et al. Safety and efficacy of high-dose daily vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014;3(4):294-303. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26625449.
  30. Pramyothin P, Holick MF. Vitamin D supplementation: guidelines and evidence for subclinical deficiency. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2012;28(2):139-150. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274617.

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