Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

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Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis

Last Updated: April 27, 2017; Last Reviewed: April 27, 2017

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis

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  13. Aurpibul L, Cressey TR, Sricharoenchai S, et al. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in virologic-suppressed HIV-infected children using weight-band dosing. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(4):392-397. Available at
  14. Overton ET, Chan ES, Brown TT, et al. Vitamin D and Calcium Attenuate Bone Loss With Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(12):815-824. Available at
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  16. Mirani G, Williams PL, Chernoff M, et al. Changing trends in complications and mortality rates among US youth and young adults with HIV infection in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(12):1850-1861. Available at
  17. Eckard AR, Mora S. Bone health in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2016;11(3):294-300. Available at
  18. Okonkwo RI, Weidmann AE, Effa EE. Renal and bone adverse effects of a tenofovir-based regimen in the treatment of HIV-infected children: a systematic review. Drug Safety. 2016;39(3):209-218. Available at
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  20. Mills A, Arribas JR, Andrade-Villanueva J, et al. Switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide in antiretroviral regimens for virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1 infection: a randomised, active-controlled, multicentre, open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):43-52. Available at
  21. Tebas P, Kumar P, Hicks C, et al. Greater change in bone turnover markers for efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus dolutegravir + abacavir/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy-naive adults over 144 weeks. AIDS. 2015;29(18):2459-2464. Available at
  22. Kizito H, Gaur A, Prasitsuebsai W, et al. Changes in renal laboratory parameters and bone mineral density in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adolescents initiating therapy with INSTI-based single-tablet regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Presented at: The 21st International AIDS Conference. 2016. Durban, South Africa.

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