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Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States

Appendix B: Supplement: Safety and Toxicity of Individual Antiretroviral Agents in Pregnancy

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

Glossary of Terms for Supplement

Carcinogenic: Producing or tending to produce cancer
Some agents, such as certain chemicals or forms of radiation, are both mutagenic and clastogenic.
Genetic mutations and/or chromosomal damage can contribute to cancer formation.

Clastogenic: Causing disruption of or breakages in chromosomes
Genotoxic: Damaging to genetic material such as DNA and chromosomes
Mutagenic: Inducing or capable of inducing genetic mutation
Teratogenic: Interfering with fetal development and resulting in birth defects


Five non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are currently approved (delavirdine is no longer available in the United States). Nevirapine and efavirenz have been studied in human pregnancy. No adequate and well-controlled studies of etravirine or rilpivirine use in pregnant women have been conducted.

For information about potential interactions between NNRTIs and methergine, see the Postpartum Hemorrhage, Antiretroviral Drugs, and Methergine Use sections in the perinatal guidelines. For more information regarding nevirapine hepatic/rash toxicity, see the Nevirapine and Hepatic/Rash Toxicity section in the perinatal guidelines.

Delavirdine (Rescriptor, DLV)
Efavirenz (Sustiva, EFV)
Etravirine (Intelence, ETR)
Nevirapine (Viramune, NVP)
Rilpivirine (Edurant. RPV)

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