Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant Women with HIV Infection and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States

The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.

The information on this page is no longer maintained by AIDSinfo. To search for up-to-date information, visit the guidelines.
  •   Table of Contents

Download Guidelines

Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors


Glossary of Terms for Supplement
Glossary of Terms for Supplement
Carcinogenic = producing or tending to produce cancer
  • Some agents, such as certain chemicals or forms of radiation, are both mutagenic and clastogenic.
  • Genetic mutations and/or chromosomal damage can contribute to cancer formation.
Clastogenic = causing disruption of or breakages in chromosomes
Genotoxic = damaging to genetic material such as DNA and chromosomes
Mutagenic = inducing or capable of inducing genetic mutation
Teratogenic = interfering with fetal development and resulting in birth defects

Data are available from clinical trials in human pregnancy for the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) zidovudine, abacavir, lamivudine, didanosine, emtricitabine, and stavudine and the nucleotide NRTI tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The nucleoside analogue drugs require three intracellular phosphorylation steps to form the triphosphate nucleoside, which is the active drug moiety. TDF, an acyclic nucleotide analogue drug, contains a monophosphate component attached to the adenine base and, hence, requires only two phosphorylation steps to form the active moiety.

For information regarding the nucleoside analogue drug class and potential mitochondrial toxicity in pregnancy and to the infant, see the Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy and Long-Term Follow-Up of Antiretroviral Drug-Exposed Infants.

Abacavir (Ziagen, ABC)
Didanosine (Videx, ddI)
Emtricitabine (Emtriva, FTC)
Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC)
Stavudine (Zerit, d4T)
Tenofovir alfenamide (Genvoya, Odefsey, Descovy, TAF)
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread, TDF)
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT, ZDV)

Download Guidelines