Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV
The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations.
Table 1. Prophylaxis to Prevent First Episode of Opportunistic Disease
Last Updated: November 21, 2019; Last Reviewed: November 21, 2019
||A new positive IgM or IgG serologic test in patients who live in a disease-endemic area and with CD4 count <250 cells/µL (BIII)
||Fluconazole 400 mg PO daily (BIII)
|Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Infection
||HAV-susceptible patients with chronic liver disease, or who are injection-drug users, or MSM (AII).
||Hepatitis A vaccine 1 mL IM x 2 doses at 0 and 6–12 months (AII).
IgG antibody response should be assessed 1 month after vaccination; non-responders should be revaccinated when CD4 count >200 cells/µL (BIII).
|For patients susceptible to both HAV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (see below):
Combined HAV and HBV vaccine (Twinrix®), 1 mL IM as a 3-dose (0, 1, and 6 months) or 4-dose series (days 0, 7, 21 to 30, and 12 months) (AII)
|Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection
For patients with isolated anti-HBc
|Some experts recommend vaccinating with 40-µg doses of either HBV vaccine (CIII).|
||Re-vaccinate with a second vaccine series (BIII)||
||CD4 count ≤150 cells/µL and at high risk because of occupational exposure or live in a community with a hyperendemic rate of histoplasmosis (>10 cases/100 patient-years) (BI)
||Itraconazole 200 mg PO daily (BI)
|Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection
||Females and males aged 13–26 years (AIII)
||For patients who have completed a vaccination series with the recombinant bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine, many experts would give an additional full series of recombinant 9-valent vaccine, but there are no data to define who might benefit or how cost effective this approach might be (CIII).|
|Influenza A and B Virus Infection
||All persons with HIV (AIII)
||Inactivated influenza vaccine annually (per recommendation for the season) (AIII)
High-dose inactivated influenza vaccine may be given to individuals aged ≥65 years (CIII).
Live-attenuated influenza vaccine is contraindicated in patients with HIV (AIII).
|Malaria||Travel to disease-endemic area
||Recommendations are the same for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients. Recommendations are based on region of travel, malaria risks, and drug susceptibility in the region. Refer to the following website for the most recent recommendations based on region and drug susceptibility:
| Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Disease
||For CD4 Count <50 cells/mm3
||Rifabutin (dose adjusted based on concomitant ART)a (BI); rule out active TB before starting rifabutin.|
|Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection (TB) (i.e., treatment of latent TB infection [LTBI])||
Positive screening test for LTBI,b with no evidence of active TB, and no prior treatment for active TB or LTBI (AI)
Close contact with a person with infectious TB, with no evidence of active TB, regardless of screening test results (AI).
(INH 300 mg plus pyridoxine 25-50 mg) PO daily for 9 months (AII)
LTBI treatment and ART act independently to decrease the risk of TB disease. Thus, ART is recommended for all persons with HIV and LTBI (AI).
Rifapentine (see dose below) PO plus INH 900 mg PO plus pyridoxine 50 mg PO once weekly for 12 weeks (AII)
Rifampin 600 mg PO daily for 4 months (BI)
For persons exposed to drug-resistant TB, select anti-TB drugs after consultation with experts or public health authorities (AII).
|Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)
|Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection
||For individuals who have never received any pneumococcal vaccine, regardless of CD4 count||
PCV13 0.5 mL IM one time (AI) followed by:
If CD4 Count ≥200 cells/mm3
|PPV23 0.5 mL IM one time (BII)|
|For individuals who have previously received PPV23||One dose of PCV13 should be given at least 1 year after the last receipt of PPV23 (AII).
Adults (aged ≥19 years) should wait at least 1 year, and adolescents (aged <19 years) should wait at least 8 weeks after last receipt of PPV23 (BIII).
||PPV23 0.5 mL IM one time (BII)||N/A|
||Benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units IM for 1 dose (AII)
||For penicillin-allergic patients:
|Talaromycosis (Penicilliosis)||Persons with HIV and CD4 cell counts <100 cells/mm3, who are unable to have ART, or have treatment failure without access to effective ART options, and
||For persons who reside in endemic areas, itraconazole 200 mg PO once daily (BI).
For those traveling to the highly endemic regions, begin itraconazole 200 mg PO once daily 3 days before travel, and continue for 1 week after leaving the endemic area (BIII).
|For persons who reside in endemic areas, fluconazole 400 mg PO once weekly (BII).
For those traveling to the highly endemic regions, take the first dose of fluconazole 400 mg 3 days before travel, continue 400 mg once weekly, and take the final dose after leaving the endemic area (BIII).
|Toxoplasma gondii Encephalitis||
||TMP-SMXc 1 DS PO daily (AII)||
|Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection-Primary Infection
Post-Exposure Prevention of Primary Varicella Infection:
Individuals receiving monthly high-dose IVIG (>400 mg/kg) are likely to be protected if the last dose of IVIG was administered <3 weeks before exposure.
Key to Acronyms:anti-HBc = hepatitis B core antibody; anti-HBs = hepatitis B surface antibody; ART = antiretroviral therapy; BID = twice daily; BIW = twice a week; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte cell; DOT = directly observed therapy; DS = double strength; EFV = efavirenz; G6PD = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; HAV = hepatitis A virus; HBV = hepatitis B virus; HPV = human papillomavirus; IgG = immunoglobulin G; IgM = immunoglobulin M; IGRA = interferon-gamma release assays; IM = intramuscular; INH = isoniazid; IU = international units; IV= intravenously; IVIG = intravenous immunoglobulin; LTBI = latent tuberculosis infection; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex; N/A = not applicable PCP = Pneumocystis pneumonia; PCV13 = 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; PO = orally; PPV23 = 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine; RAL= raltegravir; SQ = subcutaneous; SS = single strength; TB = tuberculosis; TMP-SMX = trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; TST = tuberculin skin test; VZV = varicella zoster virus
a Refer to the Drug Interactions section in the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Guidelines for dosing recommendation
b Screening tests for LTBI include TST or IGRA.
c TMP-SMX DS once daily also confers protection against toxoplasmosis and many respiratory bacterial infections; lower dose also likely confers protection.
d Patients should be tested for G6PD before administration of dapsone or primaquine. Alternative agent should be used in patients found to have G6PD deficiency.
e Refer to Daraprim Direct for information regarding how to access pyrimethamine.
Strength of Recommendation:
A: Strong recommendation for the statement
B: Moderate recommendation for the statement
C: Optional recommendation for the statement
Quality of Evidence for the Recommendation:
I: One or more randomized trials with clinical outcomes and/or validated laboratory endpoints
II: One or more well-designed, nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies with long-term clinical outcomes
III: Expert opinion
In cases where there are no data for the prevention or treatment of an OI based on studies conducted in HIV-infected populations, but data derived from HIV-uninfected patients exist that can plausibly guide management decisions for patients with HIV/AIDS, the data will be rated as III but will be assigned recommendations of A, B, C depending on the strength of recommendation.
- CDC | 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines
- HCV Guidance: Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C
- AIDSinfo Patient Materials: What is an Opportunistic Infection?
- AIDSource | HIV-Related Conditions
- AETC National HIV Curriculum
- How to Cite These Guidelines
- Adult and Adolescent OI Guidelines Archive