The Relationship between the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Part II)
Ackah AN, Coulibaly D, Digbeu H, Diallo K, et al. Response to treatment, mortality, and CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Lancet 1995;345(8950):607-10.
Alcabes P, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Friedland GH. Incubation period of human immunodeficiency virus. Epidemiol Rev 1993a;15(2):303-18.
Alcabes P, Schoenbaum EE, Klein RS. Correlates of the rate of decline of CD4+ lymphocytes among injection drug users infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Epidemiol 1993b;137(9):989-1000.
Alcabes P, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Friedland G. Maturity of human immunodeficiency virus infection and incubation period of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in injecting drug users. Ann Epidemiol 1994;4(1):17-26.
Aldrovandi GM, Feuer G, Gao L, Jamieson B, et al. The SCID-hu mouse as a model for HIV-1 infection. Nature 1993;363(6431):732-6.
Adedort LM, Operskalski EA, Dietrich SL, Koerper MA, et al. Low CD4+ counts in a study of transfusion safety. N Engl J Med 1993;328(6):441-2.
Allain JP, Laurian Y, Paul DA, Verroust F, et al. Long-term evaluation of HIV antigen and antibodies to p24 and gp41 in patients with hemophilia. Potential clinical importance. N Engl J Med 1987;317(18):1114-21.
AMA (American Medical Association), Council on Scientific Affairs. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (commentary). JAMA 1984;252(15):2037-43.
Ameisen JC, Capron A. Cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: the programmed cell death hypothesis. Immunol Today 1991;12(4):102-5.
Ammann AJ, Abrams D, Conant M, Chudwin D, et al. Acquired immune dysfunction in homosexual men: immunologic profiles. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1983a;27(3):315-25.
Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Weintrub P, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency in an infant: possible transmission by means of blood products. Lancet 1983b;1(8331):956-8.
Ammann A. T-cell immunodeficiency disorders. In: Stites D, Terr A, eds. Basic and Clinical Immunology; 7th ed. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange, 1991.
Andes WA, Rangan SR, Wulff KM. Exposure of heterosexuals to human immunodeficiency virus and viremia: evidence for continuing risks in spouses of hemophiliacs. Sex Transm Dis 1989;16(2):68-73.
Andiman WA, Simpson BJ, Olson B, Dember L, et al. Rate of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection from mother to child and short-term outcome of neonatal infection. Am J Dis Child 1990;144:758-66.
Aoki-Sei S, Yarchoan R, Kageyama S, Hoekzema DT, et al. Plasma HIV-1 viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals assessed by polymerase chain reaction. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992;8(7):1263-70.
Aronson DL. Infection of hemophiliacs with HIV. J Clin Apheresis 1993;8(2):117-9.
Ascher MS, Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W Jr, Vittinghoff E, et al. Does drug use cause AIDS? Nature 1993a;362(6416):103-4.
Ascher MS, Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W Jr, Vittinghoff E. Aetiology of AIDS. Lancet 1993b;341(8854):1223.
Ascher MS, Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W. AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (letter). Science 1995;267:1080.
Ashley R. Cocaine: its history, uses and effects. New York: St. Martins Press, 1975.
Ashton LJ, Learmont J, Luo K, Wylie B, et al. HIV infection in recipients of blood products from donors with known duration of infection. Lancet 1994;344(8924):718-20.
Auerbach DM, Darrow WW, Jaffe HW, Curran JW. Cluster of cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: patients linked by sexual contact. Am J Med 1984;76(3):487-92.
Bacellar H, Munoz A, Hoover DR, Phair JP, et al. Incidence of clinical AIDS conditions in a cohort of homosexual men with CD4+ cell counts < 100/mm3. J Infect Dis 1994;170(5):1284-7.
Bachmeyer C, Boufassa F, Sereni D, Deveau C, Buquet D. Prognostic valve of acute symptomatic HIV-infection. Sixth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. PO-B01-0870), June 6-11, 1993.
Bagasra O, Hauptman SP, Lischner HW, Sachs M, Pomerantz RJ. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus in mononuclear cells by in situ polymerase chain reaction. N Engl J Med 1992;326(21):1385-91.
Bagnarelli P, Menzo S, Valenza A, Manzin A, et al. Molecular profile of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in symptomless patients and in patients with AIDS. J Virol 1992;66(12):7328-35.
Barlow KM, Mok JY. Dizygotic twins discordant for HIV and hepatitis C virus. Arch Dis Child 1993;68(4):507.
Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Herndier BG, Levy JA. An AIDS-like condition induced in baboons by HIV-2. Science 1994;266:642-6.
Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 1983;220(4599):868-71.
Becherer PR, Smiley ML, Matthews TJ, Weinhold KJ, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 disease progression in hemophiliacs. Am J Hematol 1990;34(3):204-9.
Bell AP, Weinberg MS. Homosexualities: a study of diversity among men and women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.
Biggar RJ. AIDS incubation in 1,891 HIV seroconverters from different exposure groups. International Registry of Seroconverters. AIDS 1990;4(11):1059-66.
Bindels PJ, Krol A, Mulder-Folkerts DK, van den Hoek JA, Coutinho RA. Survival of patients following the diagnosis of AIDS in the Amsterdam region, 1982-1991. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1994;138(10):513-8.
Blanche S, Mayaux MJ, Rouzioux C, Teglas JP, et al. Relation of the course of HIV infection in children to the severity of the disease in their mothers at delivery. N Engl J Med 1994;330(5):308-12.
Blattner W, Gallo RC, Temin HM. HIV causes AIDS. Science 1988a;241(4865):515-6.
Blattner W, et al. Blattner and colleagues respond to Duesberg. Science 1988b;241:514-5.
Blattner W, Reitz M, Colclough G, Weiss S. HIV/AIDS in laboratory workers infected with HTLV-IIIB. IXth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. PO-B01-0876), June 6-11, 1993.
Bobkov A, Garaev MM, Rzhaninova A, Kaleebu P, et al. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in the former Soviet Union: analysis of env V3 sequences and their correlation with epidemiologic data. AIDS 1994;8(5):619-24.
Bonyhadi ML, Rabin L, Salimi S, Brown DA, et al. HIV induces thymus depletion in vivo. Nature 1993;363(6431):728-32.
Boulos R, Ruff A, Coberly J, McBrien M, Halsey JD. Effect of maternal HIV status on infant growth and survival. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 054B), Aug 7-12, 1994. Boyer PJ, Dillon M, Navaie M, Deveikis A, et al. Factors predictive of maternal-fetal transmission of HIV-1. Preliminary analysis of zidovudine given during pregnancy and/or delivery. JAMA 1994;271(24):1925-30.
British Cooperative Clinical Group. Homosexuality and venereal disease in the United Kingdom. Br J Vener Dis 1973;49:329-34.
Brookmeyer R, Gail HM. Screening and accuracy of tests for HIV. AIDS Epidemiology: A Quantitative Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Brown T, Sittitrai W. Estimates of HIV infection levels in the Thai population. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 182C), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Bruisten SM, Koppelman MH, Dekker JT, Bakker M, et al. Concordance of human immunodeficiency virus detection by polymerase chain reaction and by serologic assays in a Dutch cohort of seronegative homosexual men. J Infect Dis 1992;166(3):620-2.
Buchbinder SP, Katz MH, Hessol NA, O'Malley PM, Holmberg SD. Long-term HIV-1 infection without immunologic progression. AIDS 1994;8(8):1123-8.
Busch MP, Valinsky JE, Paglieroni T, Prince HE, et al. Screening of blood donors for idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia. Transfusion 1994;34(3):192-7.
Cao Y, Qin L, Zhang L, Safrit J, Ho DD. Virologic and immunologic characterization of long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 1995;332(4):201-8.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control). Pneumocystis pneumonia - Los Angeles. MMWR 1981a;30:250-2.
CDC. Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men - New York City and California. MMWR 1981b;30:305-8.
CDC. Persistent, generalized lymphadenopathy among homosexual males. MMWR 1982a;31:249-52.
CDC. Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) - United States. MMWR 1982b;31:507-14.
CDC. Pneumocytsis carinii pneumonia among persons with hemophilia A. MMWR 1982c;31:365-7.
CDC. Possible transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency sundrome (AIDS) - California. MMWR 1982d;31:652-4.
CDC. Opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma among Haitians in the United States. MMWR 1982e;31:353-61.
CDC. CDC Task force on Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections. N Engl J Med 1982f;306:248-52.
CDC. Immunodeficiency among female sex partners of males with acquried immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - New York. MMWR 1983a;31:697-8.
CDC. Prevention of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): report of inter-agency recommendations. MMWR 1983b;32:101-4.
CDC. Revision of the case definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome for national reporting - United States. MMWR 1985a;34:373-5.
CDC. Revision of the surveillance case definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR 1987a;36:3S-15S.
CDC. Classification for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children under 13 years of age. MMWR 1987b;35:224-35.
CDC. Summary of notifiable diseases - United States. MMWR 1987c;36:1-59.
CDC. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR 1992a;41:1-19.
CDC. Guideline for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. MMWR 1992b;41:1-11.
CDC. Summary of notifiable disease - United States, 1992. MMWR 1993b;41:1-73.
CDC. Update: AIDS among women - United States, 1994. MMWR 1994;43.
CDC. HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 1994 year-end edition. 1995a;6(no.2).
CDC. Division of HIV/AIDS, Reporting and Analysis Section. Personal communication, April 12, 1995b.
Chambers CD, Taylor WJ, Moffett AD. The incidence of cocaine use among methadone maintenance patients. Int J Addict 1974;7(3):427- 41.
Chandra RK, ed. Primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1983.
Chearskul S, Chotpitayasunondh T, Wanprapa N, Sangtaweesin V, et al. Survival among HIV-1 perinatally-infected infants, Bangkok, Thailand. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 222C), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Cheingsong-Popov R, Weiss RA, Dalgleish A, Tedder RS, et al. Prevalence of antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III in AIDS and AIDS-risk patients in Britain. Lancet 1984;2(8401):477-80.
Chin J, Mann JM. The global patterns and prevalence of AIDS and HIV infection. AIDS 1988;2(suppl 1):S247-52.
Chorba TL, Holman RC, Strine TW, Clarke MJ, Evatt BL. Changes in longevity and causes of death among persons with hemophilia A. Am J Hematol 1994;45(2):112-21.
Clark SJ, Saag MS, Decker WD, Campbell-Hill S, et al. High titers of cytopathic virus in plasma of patients with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med 1991;324(14):954-60.
Coates RA, Farewell VT, Raboud J, Read SE, et al. Cofactors of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of male sexual contacts of men with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132(4):717-22.
Coffin J, Haase A, Levy JA, Montagnier L, et al. Human immunodeficiency viruses (letter). Science 1986;232(4751):697.
Cohen J. Could drugs, rather than a virus, be the cause of AIDS? Science 1994a;266(5191):1648-9.
Cohen J. The epidemic in Thailand. Science 1994b;266(5191):1647.
Cohen J. Fulfilling Koch's postulates. Science 1994c;266(5191):1647.
Cohen J. Duesberg and critics agree: hemophilia is the best test. Science 1994d;266(5191):1645-6.
Cohen J. The Duesberg phenomenon. Science 1994e;266(5191):1642-4.
Concorde Coordinating Commitee. MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Lancet 1994;343(8902):871-81.
Connor RJ, Mohri H, Cao Y, Ho DD. Increased viral burden and cytopathicity correlate temporally with CD4+ T-lymphocyte decline and clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1- infected individuals. J Virol 1993;67(4):1772-7.
Connor RI, Ho DD. Transmission and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994a;10(4):321-3.
Connor RI, Ho DD. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with increased replicative capacity develop during the asymptomatic stage before disease progression. J Virol 1994b;68(7):4400-8.
Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, Kiselev P, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. N Engl J Med 1994c;331(18):1173-80.
Coombs RW, Collier AC, Allain JP, Nikora B, et al. Plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1989;321(24):1626-31.
Cooper DA, Gold J, Maclean P, Donovan B, et al. Acute AIDS retrovirus infection. Definition of a clinical illness associated with seroconversion. Lancet 1985;1(8428):537-40.
Cooper DA, Gatell JM, Kroon S, Clumeck N, et al. Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. N Engl J Med 1993;329(5):297-303.
Corbitt G, Bailey AS, Williams G. HIV infection in Manchester, 1959. Lancet 1990;336(8706):51.
Courtwright DT. Dark pardise: opiate addiction in America before 1940. Cambrige, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Creagh-Kirk T, Doi P, Andrews E, Nusinoff-Lehrman S, et al. Survival experience among patients with AIDS receiving zidovudine. Follow-up of patients in a compassionate plea program. JAMA 1988;260(20):3009-15.
Curran JW, Lawrence DN, Jaffe H, Kaplan JE, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions. N Engl J Med 1984;310(2):69-75.
Curran JW, Jaffe HW, Hardy AM, Morgan WM, et al. Epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States. Science 1988;239(4840):610-6.
d'Arminio Monforte A, Novati R, Galli M, Marchisio P, et al. T-cell subsets and serum immunoglobulin levels in infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers: a longitudinal evaluation. AIDS 1990;4(11):1141-4.
Daar ES, Moudgil T, Meyer RD, Ho DD. Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 1991;324(14):961-4.
Daar ES, et al. Sequential determination of viral load and phenotype in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1995;11(1):3-9.
Dale GM. Morphine and cocaine intoxication. JAMA 1903;1:12,15-6.
Dalgleish AG, et al. The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 1984;312(5996):763-7.
Dallabetta GA, Miotti PG, Chiphangwi JD, Saah AJ, et al. High socioeconomic status is a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but not for sexually transmitted diseases in women in Malawi: implications for HIV-1 control. J Infect Dis 1993;167(1):36-42.
Darby SC, Rizza CR, Doll R, Spooner RJ, et al. Incidence of AIDS and excess of mortality associated with HIV in haemophiliacs in the United Kingdom: report on behalf of the directors of haemophilia centres in the United Kingdom. BMJ 1989;298(6680):1064-8.
Davachi F. Pediatric HIV infection in Africa. In: Essex M, et al, eds. AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press, 1994.
Davis KC, Horsburgh CR Jr, Hasiba U, Schocket AL, Kirkpatrick CH. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient with hemophilia. Ann Intern Med 1983;98(3):284-6.
de Biasi R, Rocino A, Miraglia E, Mastrullo L, Quirino AA. The impact of a very high purity factor VIII concentrate on the immune system of human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs: a randomized, prospective, two-year comparison with an intermediate purity concentrate. Blood 1991;78(8):1919-22.
Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Marmor M, Mildvan D, et al. CD4 lymphocytopenia among injecting drug users in New York City. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6:(7)820-2.
deShazo RD, Andes WA, Nordberg J, Newton J, et al. An immunologic evaluation of hemophiliac patients and their wives. Relationships to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1983;99(2):159-64.
Desrosiers RC. The simian immunodeficiency viruses. Annu Rev Immunol 1990;8:557-78.
Dewhurst S, Embretson JE, Anderson DC, Mullins JI, Fultz PN. Sequence analysis and acute pathogenicity of molecularly cloned SIVSMM-PBj14. Nature 1990;345(6276):636-40.
Dickover RE, Dillon M, Gillette SG, Deveikis A, et al. Rapid increases in load of human immunodeficiency virus correlate with early disease progression and loss of CD4 cells in vertically infected infants. J Infect Dis 1994;170(5):1279-84.
Dietrich SL, Boone DC. The epidemiology of HIV infection in hemophiliacs. In: Nilsson, Berntrop, eds. Recent Advances in Hemophilia Care. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1990.
Doll LS, Judson FN, Ostrow DG, O'Malley PM, et al. Sexual behavior before AIDS: the hepatitis B studies of homosexual and bisexual men. AIDS 1990;4(11):1067-73.
Dondero TJ, Curran JW. Excess deaths in Africa from HIV: confirmed and quantified (commentary). Lancet 1994;343(8904):989-90.
Donegan E, Stuart M, Niland JC, Sacks HS, et al. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations. Ann Intern Med 1990;113(10):733-9.
Douard D, Perel Y, Micheau M, Contraires B, et al. Perinatal HIV infection: longitudinal study of 22 children (clinical and biological follow-up) (letter). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989;2(2):212-3.
Duesberg PH. Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens: expectations and reality. Cancer Res 1987;47(5):1199-220.
Duesberg P. HIV is not the cause of AIDS. Science 1988;241(4865):514, 517.
Duesberg PH. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86(3):755-64.
Duesberg PH. AIDS: non-infectious deficiencies acquired by drug consumption and other risk factors. Res Immunol 1990;141(1):5-11.
Duesberg PH. AIDS epidemiology: inconsistencies with human immunodeficiency virus and with infectious disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88(4):1575-9.
Duesberg PH. The role of drugs in the origin of AIDS. Biomed Pharmacother 1992;46(1):3-15.
Duesberg PH. AIDS acquired by drug consumption and other noncontagious risk factors. Pharmacol Ther 1992;55(3):201-77.
Duesberg P. Infectious AIDS -- stretching the germ theory beyond its limits. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1994;103(2):118-27.
Durack DT. Opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 1981;305(24):1465-7.
Edelman K, Horning P, Catalan J, Gazzard B. HIV does not cause AIDS - impact of T.V. programme on attitudes to zidovudine in HIV patients. VIIth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. W.B.2097), June 16-21, 1991.
Elliott JL, Hoppes WL, Platt MS, Thomas JG, et al. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare bacteremia in a patient with hemophilia. Ann Intern Med 1983;98(3):290-3.
Embretson J, Zapancic M, Ribas JL, Burke A, et al. Massive covert infection of helper T lymphocytes and macrophages by HIV during the incubation period of AIDS. Nature 1993;362(6418):359-62.
Essex M, Hardy WJ Jr, Cotter SM, Jakowski RM, Sliski A. Naturally occurring persistent feline oncornavirus infections in the absence of disease. Infect Immun 1975;11(3):470-5.
Essex M. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: role of a human retrovirus. J Natl Cancer Inst 1982;69:981.
Essex M. The etiology of AIDS. In: Essex, et al, eds. AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press, 1994.
European Collaborative Study. Children born to women with HIV-1 infection: natural history and risk of transmission. Lancet 1991;337:253-60.
European Collaborative Study. Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1992;339:1007-12.
Evans AS. Causation and disease: the Henle-Koch postulates revisited. Yale J Biol Med 1976;49(2):175-95.
Evans AS. The clinical illness promotion factor: a third ingredient. Yale J Biol Med 1982;55(3-4):193-9.
Evans AS. Does HIV cause AIDS? An historical perspective. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989a;2(2):107-13.
Evans AS. Does HIV cause AIDS: author's reply (letter). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989b;2(9):514-7.
Evans AS. AIDS: the alternative view. Lancet 1992;339(8808):1547.
Evatt BL, Gomperts ED, McDougal JS, Ramsey RB. Coincidental appearance of LAV/HTLV-III antibodies in hemophiliacs and the onset of the AIDS epidemic. N Engl J Med 1985;312(8):483-6.
Fauci AS. The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis. Science 1988;239(4840):617-22.
Fauci AS. Multifactorial nature of human immunodeficiency virus disease: implications for therapy. Science 1993a;262(3136):1011-8.
Fauci AS. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection -- no lights, no camera, just facts. N Engl J Med 1993b;328(6):429-31.
Fenyo EM, Morfeldt-Manson L, Chiodi F, Lind B, et al. Distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus isolates. J Virol 1988;62(11):4414-9.
Feorino PM, Kalyanaraman VS, Haverkos HW, Cabradilla CD, et al. Lymphadenopathy associated virus infection of a blood donor-recipient pair with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Science 1984;225(4657):69-72.
Ferre F, Marchese A, Duffy PC, Lewis DE, et al. Quantitation of HIV viral burden by PCR in HIV seropositive Navy personnel representing Walter Reed stages 1 to 6. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992;8(2):269-75.
Finkel TH, Tudor-Williams G, Banda NK, et al. Apoptosis occurs predominantly in bystander cells and not in productively infected cells of HIV- and SIV-infected lymph nodes. Nature Medicine 1995;1(2):129-34.
Fischl MA, Richman DD, Grieco MH, Gottlieb MS, et al. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med 1987;317(4):185-91.
Fischl MA, Richman DD, Causey DM, Grieco MH, et al. Prolonged zidovudine therapy in patients with AIDS and advanced AIDS-related complex. AZT Collaborative Working Group. JAMA 1989;262(17):2405-10.
Fischl MA, Richman DD, Hansen N, Collier AC, et al. The safety and efficacy of zidovudine (AZT) in the treatment of subjects with mildly symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1990;112(10):727-37.
Fox CH, Kotler D, Tierney A, Wilson CS, Fauci AS. Detection of HIV-1 RNA in the lamina propria of patients with AIDS and gastrointestinal disease. J Infect Dis 1989;159(3):467-71.
Franchini G, Gurgo C, Guo HG, Gallo RC, et al. Sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus and its relationship to the human immunodeficiency viruses. Nature 1987;328(6130):539-43.
Francis DP, Curran JW, Essex M. Epidemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome: epidemiologic evidence for a transmissible agent. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983;71(1):1-4.
Fricke W, Augustyniak L, Lawrence D, Brownstein A, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection due to clotting factor concentrates: results of the Seroconversion Surveillance Project. Transfusion 1992;32(8):707-9.
Friedland G. Parenteral drug users. In: Kaslow RA, Francis DP, eds. The Epidemiology of AIDS. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Friedman RC, Downey JI. Homosexuality. N Engl J Med 1994;331(14):923-30.
Friedman-Kien AE. Disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma syndrome in young homosexual men. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981;5(4):468-71.
Fultz PN. The pathobiology of SIV infection of macaques. In: Montagnier L, Gougeon ML, eds. New Concepts in AIDS Pathogenesis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1993.
Furtado MR, Kingsley LA, Wolinsky SM. Changes in the viral mRNA expression pattern correlate with a rapid rate of CD4+ T-cell number decline in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals. J Virol 1995 Apr;69(4):2092-2100.
Galai N, et al. Changes in markers of disease progression in HIV- 1 seroconverters: a comparison between cohorts of injecting drug users and homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Def Syndr 1995;8:66-74.
Galli M, Lazzarin A, Saracco A, Balotta C, et al. Clinical and immunological aspects of HIV infection in drug addicts. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1989;50(1 pt 2):S166-76.
Galli M, Musicco M, Gervasoni C, Ridolfo AL, et al. No evidence for a role of continuing intravenous drug injection in accelerating disease progression in HIV-1 positive subjects. VIIth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. TH.C.48), June 16-21, 1991.
Gallo RC, Reitz MS Jr. Human retroviruses and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1982;69(6):1209-14.
Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, Shearer GM, et al. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science 1984;224(4648):500-3.
Gallo RC, Montagnier L. The chronology of AIDS research. Nature 1987;326(6112):435-6.
Gallo RC. Virus hunting. AIDS, cancer, and the human retrovirus: a story of scientific discovery. New York: Harper Collins, 1991.
Gange RW, Jones EW. Kaposi's sarcoma and immunosuppressive therapy: an appraisal. Clin Exp Dermatol 1978;3(2):135-46.
Garry RF. Potential mechanisms for the cytopathic properties of HIV. AIDS 1989;3(11):683-94.
Gazzard BG, Shanson DC, Farthing C, Lawrence AG, et al. Clinical findings and serological evidence of HTLV-III infection in homosexual contacts of patients with AIDS and persistent generalised lymphadenopathy in London. Lancet 1984;2(8401):480-3.
Genesca J, Wang RY, Alter HJ, Shih JW. Clinical correlation and genetic polymorphism of the human immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA obtained after polymerase chain reaction amplification. J Infect Dis 1990;162(5):1025-30.
Gershon AA. Measles virus (rubeola). In: Mandell GL, et al, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases; 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990.
Getchell JP, Hicks DR, Svinivasan A, Heath JL, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus isolated from a serum sample collected in 1976 in Central Africa. J Infect Dis 1987;156(5):833-7.
Giesecke J, Scalia-Tomba G, Hakansson C, Karlsson A, Lidman K. Incubation time of AIDS: progression of disease in a cohort of HIV-infected homosexual and bisexual men with known dates of infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22(4):407-11.
Gilbert AN. Conceptions of homosexuality and sodomy in Western history. J Homosex 1980-81;6(1-2):57-68.
Ginsberg HS, (moderator). Scientific forum on AIDS: a summary. Does HIV cause AIDS? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1988;1(2):165-72.
Gjerset GF, Pike MC, Mosley JW, Hassett J, et al. Effect of low- and intermediate-purity clotting factor therapy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection in congenital clotting disorders. Blood 1994;84(5):1666-71.
Goedert JJ, Neuland CY, Wallen WC, Greene MH, et al. Amyl nitrite may alter T lymphocytes in homosexual men. Lancet 1982;1(8269):412-6.
Goedert JJ, Kessler CM, Aledort LM, Biggar RJ, et al. A prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and the development of AIDS in subjects with hemophilia. N Engl J Med 1989;321(17):1141-8.
Golding H, Shearer GM, Hillman K, Lucas P, et al. Common epitope in human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV) I-GP41 and HLA class II elicits immunosuppressive antibodies capable of contributing to immune dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Invest 1989;83(4):1430-5.
Goldsmith JM, Deutsche J, Tang M, Green D. CD4 cells in HIV-1 infected hemophiliacs: effect of factor VIII concentrates. Thromb Haemost 1991;66(4):415-9.
Gonda MA, Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC, Clements JE, et al. Sequence homology and morphologic similarity of HTLV-III and visna virus, a pathogenic lentivirus. Science 1985;227(4683):173-7.
Gottleib MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, Weisman JD, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 1981;305(24):1425-31.
Goudsmit J. Alternative view on AIDS. Lancet 1992;339(8804):1289- 90.
Graham NM, Zeger SL, Kuo V, Jacobson LP, et al. Zidovudine use in AIDS-free HIV-1-seropositive homosexual men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1987-1989. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991;4(3):267-76.
Graham NM, Zeger SL, Park LP, Vermund SH, et al. The effects on survival of early treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1992;326(16):1037-42.
Graham NM, Piantadosi S, Park LP, Phair JP, et al. CD4+ lymphocyte response to zidovudine as a predictor of AIDS-free time and survival time. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6(11):1258-66.
Greene MH, Nightgingale SL, DuPont RL. Evolving patterns of drug abuse. Ann Intern Med 1975;83(3):402-11.
Greene JB, Sidhu GS, Lewin S, Levine JF, et al. Mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare: a cause of disseminated life-threatening infection in homosexuals and drug abusers. Ann Intern Med 1982;97(4):539-46.
Greene WC. The molecular biology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 1991;324(5):308-17.
Greene WC. AIDS and the immune system. Sci Am 1993;269(3):98-105.
Groopman JE, Salahuddin SZ, Sarngadharan MG, Mullins JI, et al. Virologic studies in a case of transfusion-associated AIDS. N Engl J Med 1984;311(22):1419-22.
Groopman JE. A dangerous delusion about AIDS. New York Times, Sept 10, 1992; A19.
Guerrero Vazquez J, de Paz Aparicio P, Olmedo Sanlaureano S, Omenaca Teres F, et al. Discordant acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in dizygotic twins. An Esp Pediatr 1993;39(5):445-7.
Gupta P, Kingsley L, Armstrong J, Ding M, et al. Enhanced expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 correlates with development of AIDS. Virology 1993;196(2):586-95.
Haase AT. Pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. Nature 1986;322(6075):130-6.
Haase AT. Lentivurses. In: Mandell, et al, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases; 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990.
Haase AT. New molecular technology in HIV research. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. PS16), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Hamilton JD, Hartigan PM, Simberkoff MS, Day PL, et al. A controlled trial of early versus late treatment with zidovudine in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Results of the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1992;326(7):437-43.
Hammer S, Crumpacker C, D'Aquila R, Jackson B, et al. Use of virologic assays for detection of human immunodeficiency virus in clinical trials: recommendations of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Virology Committee. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31(10):2557-64.
Hanenberg RS, Rojanapithayakorn W, Kunasol P, Sokal DC. Impact of Thailand's HIV-control programme as indicated by the decline of sexually transmitted diseases. Lancet 1994;344(8917):243-5.
Harden VA. Koch's postulates and the etiology of AIDS: an historical perspective. Hist Phil Life Sci 1992;14(2):249-69.
Harms G, Kirsch T, Rahelimiarana N, Hof U, et al. HIV and syphilis in Madagascar (letter). AIDS 1994;8(2):279-88.
Harris C, Small CB, Klein RS, Friedland GH, et al. Immunodeficiency in female sexual partners of men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983;308(20):1181-4.
Harris SB. The AIDS heresies: a case study of skepticism taken too far. Skeptic 1995;3(2):42-79.
Hassett J, Gjerset GF, Mosley JW, Fletcher MA, et al. Effect on lymphocyte subsets of clotting factor therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-negative congenital clotting disorders. Blood 1993;82(4):1351-7.
Haverkos HW, Dougherty JA, eds. Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants. NIDA research monograph 83, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, PHS, ADAMHA. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
Hays EF, Uittenbogaart CH, Brewer JC, Vollger LW, Zack JA. In vitro studies of HIV-1 expression in thymocytes from infants and children. AIDS 1992;6(3):265-72.
Hessol NA, Koblin BA, van Griensven GJ, Bacchetti P, et al. Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trial cohorts in Amsterdam, New York City and San Francisco, 1978-1991. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139(11):1077-87.
Hilgartner MW, Buckley JD, Operskalski EA, Pike MC, Mosley JW. Purity of factor VIII concentrates and serial CD4 counts. Lancet 1993;341(8857):1373-4.
Hirsch VM, Olmsted RA, Murphey-Corb M, Purcell RH, Johnson PR. An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2. Nature 1989;339(6223):389-92.
Ho DD, Schooley RT, Rota TR, Kaplan JC, et al. HTLV-III in the semen and blood of a healthy homosexual man. Science 1984;226(4673):451-3.
Ho DD, Rota TR, Schooley RT, Kaplan JC, et al. Isolation of HTLV-III from cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissues of patients with neurologic syndromes related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1985;313(24):1493-7.
Ho DD, Pomerantz RJ, Kaplan JC. Pathogenesis of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1987;317(5):278-86.
Ho DD, Moudgil T, Alam M. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons. N Engl J Med 1989;321(24):1621-5.
Ho DD, et al. Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature 1995;373:123-6.
Hoxie JA, Alpers JD, Rackowski JL, Huebner K, et al. Alterations in T4 (CD4) protein and mRNA synthesis in cells infected with HIV. Science 1986;234(4780):1123-7.
Hufert FT, von Laer D, Fenner TE, Schwander S, et al. Progression of HIV-1 infection. Monitoring of HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR. Arch Virol 1991;120(3-4):233-40.
Hugin AW, Vacchio MS, Morse HC III. A virus-encoded superantigen in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice. Science 1991;252(5004):424-7.
Hurtenbach U, Shearer GM. Germ cell-induced immune suppression in mice. Effect of inoculation of syngeneic spermatazoa on cell- mediated immune responses. J Exp Med 1982;155(6):1719-29.
Hutto C, Parks WP, Lai SH, Mastrucci MT, et al. A hospital-based prospective study of perinatal infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Pediatr 1991;118(3):347-53.
Hymes KB, Cheung T, Greene JB, Prose NS, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men -- a report of eight cases. Lancet 1981;2(8247):598-600.
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. Confronting AIDS. Directions for public health, health care and research. Washington, D.C: National Acadamy Press, 1986.
Irova T, Serebrovskaya L, Pokrovsky VV. The life of HIV+ children infected in nosocomial foci. Ixth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. PO-C04-2626), June 6-11, 1993.
Israelstam S, Lambert S, Oki G. Use of isobutyl nitrite as a recreational drug. Br J Addict Alcohol Other Drugs 1978;73(3):319-20.
Italian Seroconversion Study. Disease progression and early predictors of AIDS in HIV-seroconverted injecting drug users. AIDS 1992;6(4):421-6.
Jackson JB, Kwok SY, Sninsky JJ, Hopsicker JS, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 detected in all seropositive symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28(1):16-9.
Jacobs E. Anal infections caused by herpes simplex virus. Dis Colon Rectum 1976;19(2):151-7.
Jaffe HW, Darrow WW, Echenberg DF, O'Malley PM, et al. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of homosexual men. A six-year follow-up study. Ann Intern Med 1985a;103(2):210-4.
Jaffe HW, Sarngadharan MG, DeVico AL, Bruch L, et al. Infection with HTLV-III/LAV and transfusion-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Serologic evidence of an association. JAMA 1985b;254(6):770-3.
Jaffe HW. Emerging trends in HIV and AIDS (oral presentation). Second National Conference on Human Retroviruses and Related Infections, Washington, D.C. Jan 29- Feb 2, 1995.
Janeway C. Immune recognition. Mls: makes little sense. Nature 1991;349(6309):459-61.
Jason J, Murphy J, Sleeper LA, Donfield SM, et al. Immune and serologic profiles of HIV-infected and noninfected hemophilic children and adolescents. Am J Hematol 1994;46(1):29-35.
Jefferiss FJG. Venereal disease and the homosexual. Br J Vener Dis 1956;32:17-20.
Johnson JP, Nair P, Hines SE, Seiden SW, et al. Natural history and serologic diagnosis of infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Am J Dis Child 1989;143(10):1147-53.
Jones PK, Ratnoff OD. The changing prognosis of classic hemophilia (factor VIII deficiency). Ann Intern Med 1991;114(8):641-8.
Jones DS, Byers RH, Bush TJ, Oxtoby MJ, Rogers MF. Epidemiology of transfusion-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children in the United States, 1981-1989. Pediatrics 1992;89(1):123-7.
Judson FN, Miller KG, Schaffnit TR. Screening for gonorrhea and syphilis in the gay baths - Denver, Colorado. Am J Public Health 1977;67(8):740-2.
Jurriaans S, Weverling GJ, Goudsmit J, et al. Distinct changes in HIV type 1 RNA versus p24 antigen levels in serum during short- term zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic individuals with and without progression to AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1995;11(4):473-9.
Kaslow RA, Blackwelder WC, Ostrow DG, Yerg D, et al. No evidence for a role of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs in accelerating immunodeficiency in HIV-1-positive individuals. A report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. JAMA 1989;261(23):3424-9.
Katz BZ. Natural history and clinical management of the infant born to a mother infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Semin Perinatol 1989;13(1):27-34.
Katz JN. Gay American history. Lesbian and gay men in the USA: a documentary. New York: Meridian, 1992.
Keet IP, Krijnen P, Koot M, Lange JM, et al. Predictors of rapid progression to AIDS in HIV-1 seroconverters. AIDS 1993;7(1):51-7.
Keet IP, Krol A, Klein MR, Veugelers P, et al. Characteristics of long-term asymptomatic infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in men with normal and low CD4+ cell counts. J Infect Dis 1994;169(6):1236-43.
Kestler H, Kodama T, Ringler D, Marthas M, et al. Induction of AIDS in rhesus monkeys by molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus. Science 1990;248(4959):1109-12.
Kinsey AC, et al. Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1948.
Klatzmann D, Barre-Sinoussi F, Nugeyre MT, Danquet C, et al. Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes. Science 1984a;225(4657):59-63.
Klatzmann D, Champagne E, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature 1984b;312(5996):767-8.
Koblin BA, Taylor PE, Rubinstein P, Stevens CE. Effect of zidovudine on survival in HIV-1 infection: observational data from a cohort study of gay men. VIIIth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. PoC 4349), Jul 19-24, 1992.
Kodama T, Mori K, Kawahara T, Ringler DJ, Desrosiers RC. Analysis of simian immunodeficiency virus sequence variation in tissues of rhesus macaques with simian AIDS. J Virol 1993;67(11):6522-34.
Koenig S, Earl P, Powell D, Pantaleo G, et al. Group-specific, major histocompatability complex class-I restricted cytotoxic responses to human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV-1) envelope proteins by cloned peripheral blood T cells from an HIV-1 infected individual. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85(22):8638-42.
Koga Y, Lindstrom E, Fenyo EM, Wigzell H, Mak TW. High levels of heterodisperse RNAs accumulate in T cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus and in normal thymocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85(12):4521-5.
Kool HE, Bloemkolk D, Reeve PA, Danner SA. HIV seropositivity and tuberculosis in a large general hospital in Malawi. Trop Geogr Med 1990;42(2):128-32.
Kozel NJ, Adams EH. Epidemiology of drug abuse: an overview. Science 1986;234(4779):970-4.
Kreek MJ. Immune function in heroin addicts and former heroin addicts in treatment: pre- and post-AIDS epidemic. In: Pham PTK, Rice K, eds. Drugs of Abuse: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Immunology, and AIDS. NIDA Research monograph 96, 1990.
Kreiss JK, Kitchen LW, Prince HE, Kasper CK, Essex M. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III in wives of hemophiliacs. Evidence for heterosexual transmission. Ann Intern Med 1985;102(5):623-6.
Kurth R. Does HIV cause AIDS? An updated repsonse to Duesberg's theories. Intervirology 1990;31(6):301-14.
Kwok S, Mack DH, Mullis KB, Poiesz B, et al. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus sequences by using in vitro enzymatic amplification and oligomer cleavage detection. J Virol 1987;61(5):1690-4.
Lambert JS. Maternal and perinatal issues regarding HIV infection. Pediatr Ann 1990;19(8):468-72.
Latif AS. HIVs and AIDS in southern Africa and the island countries. In: Essex M, et al, eds. AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press, 1994.
Lau RK, Jenkins P, Caun K, Forster SM, et al. Trends in sexual behaviour in a cohort of homosexual men: a 7 year prospective study. Int J STD AIDS 1992;3(4):267-72.
Laumann, et al. The social organization of sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Laurence J. T-cell subsets in health, infectious disease, and idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Ann Intern Med 1993;119(1):55-62.
Laurent-Crawford AG, Krust B, Muller S, Riviere Y, et al. The cytopathic effect of HIV is associated with apoptosis. Virology 1991;185(2):829-39.
Le Clair RA. Descriptive epidemiology of interstitial pneumocystic pneumonia. An analysis of 107 cases from the United States, 1955-1967. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969;99(4):542-7.
Lederman MM, Ratnoff OD, Evatt BL, McDougal JS. Acquisition of antibody to lymphadenopathy-associated virus in patients with classic hemophilia (factor VIII deficiency). Ann Intern Med 1985;102(6):753-7.
Lee CA, Sabin CA, Phillips AN, et al. Morbidity and mortality from transfusion-transmitted disease in haemophilia. Lancet 1995;345:1309.
Lemp GF, Payne SF, Rutherford GW, Hessol NA, et al. Projections of AIDS morbidity and mortality in San Francisco. JAMA 1990;263(11):1497-1501.
Leonard R, Zagury D, Desportes I, Bernard J, et al. Cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus in T4 cells is linked to the last stage of virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85(10):3570-4.
Letvin NL, Daniel MD, Sehgal PK, Desrosiers RC, et al. Induction of AIDS-like disease in macaque monkeys with T-cell tropic retrovirus STLV-III. Science 1985;230(4721):71-3.
Levy JA, Hoffman AD, Kramer SM, Landis JA, et al. Isolation of lymphocytopathic retroviruses from San Francsico patients with AIDS. Science 1984;225(4664):840-2.
Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, Hollander H, Mills J, Kaminsky L. Isolation of AIDS-associated retroviruses from cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with neurological symptoms. Lancet 1985;2(8455):586-8.
Levy JA. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Microbiol Rev 1993;57(1):183-289.
Lifson JD, Reyes GR, McGrath MS, Stein BS, Engleman EG. AIDS retrovirus induced cytopathology: giant cell formation and involvement of CD4 antigen. Science 1986;232(4754):1123-7.
Lifson AR, Darrow WW, Hessol NA, O'Malley PM, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men. Epidemiology and analysis for cofactors. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131(2):221-31.
Lindan CP, Allen S, Serufilira A, Lifson AR, et al. Predictors of mortality among HIV-infected women in Kigali, Rwanda. Ann Intern Med 1992;116(4):320-8.
Lindback S, Brostrom C, Karlsson A, Gaines H. Does symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection accelerate progression to CDC stage IV disease, CD4 count below 200 x 10(6)/l, AIDS, and death from AIDS? BMJ 1994;309(6968):1535-7.
Lindgren S, Anzen B, Bohlin AB, Lidman K. HIV and child-bearing: clinical outcome and aspects of mother-to-infant transmission. AIDS 1991;5(9):1111-6.
Longini IM Jr, Clark WS, Karon JM. Effect of routine use of therapy in slowing the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a population-based cohort. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137(11):1229-40.
Lowenstein JM. Is AIDS a myth? California Academy of Sciences: Pacific Discovery Magazine. Fall, 1994.
Lusher JM, Operskalski EA, Aledort LM, Dietrich SL, et al. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection among sexual and nonsexual household contacts of persons with congenital clotting disorders. Pediatrics 1991;88(2):242-9.
Lyerly HK, Matthews TJ, Langlois AJ, Bolognesi DP, Weinhold KJ. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus IIIB glycoprotein (gp120) bound to CD4 determinants on normal lymphocytes and expressed by infected cells serves as target for immune attack. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987;84(13):4601-5.
Mann JM, et al, eds. AIDS in the world. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992a.
Mann JM. AIDS -- The second decade: A global perspective. J Infect Dis 1992b;165(2):245-50.
Mannucci PM, Gringeri A, de Biasi R, Baudo F, et al. Immune status of asymptomatic HIV-infected hemophiliacs: randomized, prospective, two-year comparison of treatment with a high-purity or an intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrate. Thromb Haemost 1992;67(3):310-3.
Mannucci PM, Gringeri A, Savidge G, Gatenby P, et al. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of twice-daily zidovudine in asymptomatic haemophiliacs infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Br J Haematol 1994;86(1):174-9.
MAP Workshop (Multi-cohort Analysis Project). Extending public health surveillance of HIV infection: information from a five cohort workshop. Stat Med 1993;12(22):2065-85.
Margolick JB, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Solomon L, et al. Changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in intravenous drug users with HIV-1 infection. JAMA 1992;267(12):1631-6.
Margolick JB, Munoz A, Vlahov D, Astemborski J, et al. Direct comparison of the relationship between clinical outcome and change in CD4+ lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men and injecting drug users. Arch Intern Med 1994;154(8):869-75.
Masur H, Michelis MA, Greene JB, Onorato I, et al. An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction. N Engl J Med 1981;305(24):1431-8.
Masur H. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: another scourge for individuals with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. JAMA 1982a;248(22):3013.
Masur H, Michelis MA, Wormser GP, Lewin S, et al. Opportunistic infection in previously healthy women. Initial manifestations of a community-acquired cellular immunodeficiency. Ann Intern Med 1982b;7(4):533-9.
Mathez D, Paul D, de Belilovsky C, Sultan Y, et al. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87(19):7438-42.
Mavligit GM, Talpaz M, Hsia FT, Wong W, et al. Chronic immune stimulation by sperm alloantigens: support for the hypothesis that spermatozoa induce immune dysregulation in homosexual males. JAMA 1984;251(2):237-41.
McDougal JS, Mawle A, Cort SP, Nicholson JK, et al. Cellular tropism of the human retrovirus HTLV-III/LAV. Role of T cell activation and expression of the T4 antigen. J Immunol 1985a;135(5):3151-62.
McDougal JS, Jaffe HW, Cabridilla CD, Sarngadharan MG, et al. Screening tests for blood donors presumed to have transmitted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Blood 1985b;65(3):772-5.
McDougal JS, et al. Binding of HTLV-III/LAV to T4+ T cells by a complex of the 110K virtal protein and the T4 molecule. Science 1986;231(4736):382-5.
McLeod GX, Hammer SM. Zidovudine: five years later. Ann Int Med 1992;117(6):487-501.
McMillan A, Young H. Gonorrhea in the homosexual man: frequency of infection by culture site. Sex Transm Dis 1978;5(4):146-50.
Mellors JW, Kingsley LA, Rinaldo CR, et al. Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in plasma predicts outcome after seroconversion. Ann Intern Med 1995;15,122(8):573-7.
Menez-Bautista R, Fikrig SM, Pahwa S, Sarngadharan MG, Stoneburner RL. Monozygotic twins discordant for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Dis Child 1986;140(7):678-9.
Merigan TC, Amato DA, Balsley J, Power M, et al. Placebo-controlled trial to evaluate zidovudine in treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection in asymptomatic patients with hemophilia. Blood 1991;78(4):900-6.
Merino HI, Richards JB. An innovative program of venereal disease casefinding, treatment and education for a population of gay men. Sex Transm Dis 1977;4(2):50-2.
Michael NL, Vahey M, Burke DS, Redfield RR. Viral DNA and mRNA correlate with the stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection in humans: evidence for viral replication in all stages of HIV disease. J Virol 1992;66(1):310-6.
Montagnier L, et al. A new lymphotropic retrovirus: characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes. In: Gallo RC, et al, eds. Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1984.
Montella F, Di Sora F, Perucci CA, Abeni DD, Recchia O. T-lymphocyte subsets in intravenous drug users with HIV-1 infection. JAMA 1992;268(18):2516-7.
Moore RD, Creagh-Kirk T, Keruly J, Link G, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of zidovudine in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. Arch Intern Med 1991a;151(5):981-6.
Moore RD, Hidalgo J, Sugland BW, Chaisson RE. Zidovudine and the natural history of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1991b;324(20):1412-6.
Morton WR, et al. Infection of Macaca nemestrina by HIV-1/HIV-2: development of infection and disease models. Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology Annual Meeting, Aug 22-28, 1993. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994;10(suppl 1):S1-125.
Mosley JW. Low CD4+ counts in a study of transfusion safety: correction. N Engl J Med 1993;328(15):1129.
Mulder JW, Cooper DA, Mathiesen L, Sandstrom E, et al. Zidovudine twice daily in asymptomatic subjects with HIV infection and a high risk of progression to AIDS: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. AIDS 1994a;8(3):313-21.
Mulder DW, Nunn AJ, Kamali A, Nakiyingi J, et al. Two-year HIV-1- associated mortality in a Ugandan rural population. Lancet 1994b;343(8904):1021-3.
Munoz A, Vlahov D, Solomon L, Margolick JB, et al. Prognostic indicators for development of AIDS among intravenous drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5(7):694-700.
Muro-Cacho CA, Pantaleo G, Fauci AS. Analysis of apoptosis in lymph nodes of HIV-infected persons. Intensity of apoptosis correlates with the general state of activation of the lymphoid tissue and not with stage of disease or viral burden. J Immunol 1995;154(10):5555-66.
Mworozi EA, Najjemba R, Ndugwa CM. Children born to HIV seropositive mothers followed for six years. IXth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. PO-B01-0856), June 6-11, 1993.
Myers G, MacInnes K, Korber B. The emergence of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992;8(3):373-86.
Nahmias AJ, Weiss J, Yao X, Lee F, et al. Evidence for human infection with an HTLV III/LAV-like virus in Central Africa, 1959 (letter). Lancet 1986;31,1(8492):1279-80.
Nicholson JK, Spira TJ, Aloisio CH, Jones BM, et al. Serial determinations of HIV-1 titers in HIV-infected homosexual men: association of rising titers with CD4 T cell depletion and progression to AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1989;5(2):205-15.
Nicoll A, Brown P. HIV: beyond reasonable doubt. New Scientist Jan. 15, 1994:24-8.
Novick BE, Rubinstein A. AIDS - the paediatric perspective. AIDS 1987;1(1):3-7.
Novick DM, Ochshorn M, Ghali V, Croxson TS, et al. Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in parenteral heroin abusers and long-term methadone maintenance patients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1989;250(2):606-10.
NTIS (National Technical Information Service). ACTG Protocol 116b/117: Viral load analysis for study investigators, 1994.
O'Brien WA, Hartigan PM, McCreedy B, Hamilton JD. Plasma HIV RNA and beta 2 microglobulin as surrogate markers. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 254B), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Oettle AG. Geographical and racial differences in the frequencies of Kaposi's sarcoma as evidence of environmental or genetic causes. Acta Unio Int Contra Cancrum 1962;18:330-63.
Oldstone MB. Viral persistence. Cell 1989;56(4):517-20.
Oleske J, Minnefor A, Cooper R Jr, Thomas K, et al. Immune deficiency syndrome in children. JAMA 1983;249(17):2345-9.
Ostrow D, Vanhaden MJ, Fox R, Kingsley LA, et al. Recreational drug use and sexual behavior in a cohort of homosexual men. AIDS 1990;4(8):759-65.
Ostrow DG, Beltran ED, Joseph JG, DiFranceisco W, et al. Recreational drugs and sexual behavior in the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort of homosexually active men. J Subst Abuse 1993;5(4):311-25.
Ottmann N, Innocenti P, Thenadey M, Micoud M, et al. The polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HIV-1 genomic RNA in plasma from infected individuals. J Virol Methods 1991;31(2- 3):273-83.
Owen RL, Hill JL. Rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhea in homosexual men. JAMA 1972;220(10):1315-8.
Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Fauci AS. The immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1993a;328(5):327-35.
Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Demarest JF, Butini L, et al. HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease. Nature 1993b;362(6418):355-8.
Pantaleo G, Demarest JF, Soudeyns H, Graziosi C, et al. Major expansion of CD8+ T cells with a predominant V beta usage during the primary immune response to HIV. Nature 1994;370(6489):463-7.
Pantaleo G, Menzo S, Vaccarezza M, Graziosi C, et al. Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Eng J Med 1995a;332:209-16.
Pantaleo G, Fauci AS. Apoptosis in HIV infection. Nature Medicine 1995b;1(2):118-20.
Pape JW, Liautaud B, Thomas F, Mathurin JR, et al. Characteristics of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Haiti. N Engl J Med 1983;309(16):945-50.
Pape J, Johnson WD Jr. AIDS in Haiti: 1982-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1993;17(suppl 2):S341-5.
Pariser H, Marino AF. Gonorrhea: frequently unrecognized reservoirs. South Med J 1970;63(2):198-201.
Park CL, Streicher H, Rothberg R. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from parents to only one dizygotic twin. J Clin Microbiol 1987;25(6):1119-21.
Pauza CD, Galindo JE, Richman DD. Reinfection results in accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA in cytopathic and persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of CEM cells. J Exp Med 1990;172(4):1035-42.
Pedersen C, Lindhardt BO, Jensen BL, Lauritzen E, et al. Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection. Br Med J 1989;299(6692):154-7.
Pedersen C, et al. Development of AIDS and low CD4 cell counts in a cohort of 180 seroconverters. IXth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract # PO-Bo1-0862), June 6-11, 1993.
Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, Jaffe HW, Curran JW. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission from heterosexual adults with transfusion-associated infections. JAMA 1988;259(1):55-8.
Petru A, Dunphy MG, Azimi P, Janner D, et al. Reliability of polymerase chain reaction in the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11(1):30-3.
Pezzotti P, Rezza G, Lazzarin A, Angarano G, et al. Influence of gender, age, and transmission category on the progression from HIV seroconversion to AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5(7):745-7.
Piatak M Jr, Saag MS, Yang LC, Clark SJ, et al. High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science 1993;259(5102):1749-54.
Piot P, Plummer FA, Mhalu FS, Lamboray JL, et al. AIDS: an international perspective. Science 1988;239(4840):573-9.
Pitchenik AE, Shafron RD, Glasser RM, Spira TJ. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the wife of a hemophiliac. Ann Intern Med 1984;100(1):62-5.
Poon MC, Landay A, Prasthofer EF, Stagno S. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in a previously healthy patient with classic hemophilia. Clinical, immunologic, and virologic findings. Ann Intern Med 1983;98(3):287-90.
Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC. Detection, isolation and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Science 1984;224(4648):497-500.
Prober CG, Gershon AA. Medical management of newborns and infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive mothers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991;10(9):684-95.
Quinn TC, Mann JM, Curran JW, Piot P. AIDS in Africa: an epidemiologic paradigm. Science 1986;234(4779):955-63.
Quinn TC. Population migration and the spread of types 1 and 2 human immunodeficiency viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91(7):2407-14.
Ragni MV, Kingsley LA, Zhou SJ. The effect of antiviral therapy on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of hemophiliacs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992;5(2):120-6.
Rasamindrakotroka AJ, et al. Seroprevalence of HIV-1, hepatitis B and syphilis in a population of blood donors in Antananavivo, Madagascar. VIth Int Conf on AIDS in Africa, Dakar, Senegal, (poster TA101), Dec 16-19, 1991.
Ratner L, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F. HTLV-III, LAV, ARV are variants of same AIDS virus Nature 1985;313(6004):636.
Reitz MS Jr, Hall L, Robert-Guroff M, Lautenberger J, et al. Viral variability and serum antibody response in a laboratory worker infected with HIV type 1 (HTLV type IIIB). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994;10(9):1143-55.
Reinisch JM, et al. Sexual behavior and AIDS: lessons from art and sex research. In: Veoller B, et al, eds. AIDS and Sex: An Integrated Biomedical and Biobehavioral Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Rezza G, Lazzarin A, Angarano G, Sinicco A, et al. The natural history of HIV infection in intravenous drug users: risk of disease progression in a cohort of seroconverters. AIDS 1989;3(2):87-90.
Rezza G, Lazzarin A, Angarano G, Zerboni R, et al. Risk of AIDS in HIV seroconverters: a comparison between intravenous drug users and homosexual males. Eur J Epidemiol 1990;6(1):99-101.
Richman DD, Fischl MA, Grieco MH, Gottlieb MS, et al. The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. N Engl J Med 1987;317(4):192- 7.
Richman DD, Andrews J. Results of continued monitoring of participants in the placebo-controlled trials of zidovudine for serious human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 1988;85:208-13.
Richman DD, Bozzette SA. The impact of the syncytium-inducing phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus on disease progression. J Infect Dis 1994;169(5):968-74.
Robertson JR, Skidmore CA, Roberts JJ, Elton RA. Progression to AIDS in intravenous drug users, cofactors and survival. VIth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. Th.C.649), June 20-23, 1990.
Robinson WS. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus. In: Mandell, et al, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases; 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990.
Rogers MF, Morens DM, Stewart JA, Kaminski RM, et al. National case-control study of Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men: part 2. Laboratory results. Ann Intern Med 1983;99(2):151-7.
Rogers MF, Ou CY, Rayfield M, Thomas PA, et al. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers. N Engl J Med 1989;320(25):1649-54.
Rothman S. Remarks on sex, age and racial distribution of Kaposi's sarcoma and on possible pathogenic factors. Acat Unio Int Contra Cancrum 1962a;18:326.
Rothman S. Medical research in Africa. Arch Dermatol 1962b;85:311-24.
Rubinstein A, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency with reverses T4/T8 ratios in infants born to promiscuous and drug-addicted mothers. JAMA 1983;249:2350-6.
Ryder RW, Mugewrwa RW. The clinical definition and diagnosis of AIDS in African adults. In: Essex M, et al, eds. AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press, 1994a.
Ryder RW, Nsuami M, Nsa W, Kamenga M, et al. Mortality in HIV-1-seropositive women, their spouses and their newly born children during 36 months of follow-up in Kinshasa, Zaire. AIDS 1994b;8(5):667-72.
Saag MS, Crain MJ, Decker WD, Campbell-Hill S, et al. High level viremia in adults and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus: relation to disease stage and CD4+ lymphocyte levels. J Infect Dis 1991;164(1):72-80.
Saah AJ, Hoover DR, He Y, Kingsley LA, Phair JP. Factors influencing survival after AIDS: report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994;7(3):287-95.
Sabin C, Phillips A, Elfold J, Griffiths P, et al. The progression of HIV disease in a hemophiliac cohort followed for 12 years. Br J Haematol 1993;83(2):330-3.
Safai B, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma: a review and recent developments. CA Cancer J Clin 1981;31:1-12.
Safai B. Kaposi's sarcoma: a review of classical and epidemic forms. Ann NY Acad Sci 1984a;437:373-82.
Safai B, Sarngadharan MG, Groopman JE, Arnett K, et al. Seroepidemiological studies of human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type III in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 1984b;1(8392):1438-40.
Saghir MT, Robins E. Male and female homsexuality: a comprehensive investigation. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1973.
Saksela K, Stevens C, Rubinstein P, Baltimore D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells predicts disease progression independently of the numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91(3):1104-8.
Sanchez-Pescador R, Power MD, Barr PJ, Steimer KS, et al. Nucleotide sequence and expression of an AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV-2). Science 1985;227(4686):484-92.
Sande MA, Carpenter CC, Cobbs CG, Holmes KK, Sanford JP. Antiretroviral therapy for adult HIV-infected patients: recommendations for a state-of-the-art conference. JAMA 1993;270(21):2583-9.
Sarngadharan MG, Popovic M, Bruch L, Schupbach J, Gallo RC. Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV- III) in the serum of patients with AIDS. Science 1984;224(4648):506-8.
Schechter MT, Craib KJ, Le TN, Montaner JS, et al. Susceptibility to AIDS progression appears early in HIV infection. AIDS 1990;4(3):185-90.
Schechter MT, Craib KJ, Gelman KA, Montaner JS, et al. HIV-1 and the aetiology of AIDS. Lancet 1993a;341:658-9.
Schechter MT, Craib KJ, Montaner JS, Lee TN, et al. Aetiology of AIDS. Lancet 1993b;341(8854):1222-3.
Schinaia N, Ghirardini A, Chiarotti F, Gringeri A, Mannucci PM. Progression to AIDS among Italian HIV-seropositive haemophiliacs. AIDS 1991;5(4):385-91.
Schnittman SM, Psallidopoulos MC, Lane HC, Thompson L, et al. The reservoir for HIV-1 in human peripheral blood is a T cell that maintains expression of CD4. Science 1989;245(4915):305-8.
Schnittman SM, Greenhouse JJ, Psallidopoulos MC, Baseler M, et al. Increasing viral burden in CD4+ T cells from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection reflects rapidly progressive immunosuppression and clinical disease. Ann Intern Med 1990a;113(6):438-43.
Schnittman SM, Denning SM, Greenhouse JJ, Justement JS, et al. Evidence for susceptibility of intrathymic T-cell precursors and their progeny carrying T-cell antigen receptor phenotypes TCR alpha beta + and TCR gamma delta + to human immunodeficiency virus infection: a mechanism for CD4+ (T4) lymphocyte depletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990b;87(19):7727-31.
Schnittman SM, Greenhouse JJ, Lane HC, Pierce PF, Fauci AS. Frequent detection of HIV-1 specific mRNAs in infected individuals suggests ongoing active viral expression in all stages of disease. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1991;7(4):361-7.
Schoenbaum EE, Hartel D, Selwyn PA, et al. Lack of association of T-cell subsets with continuing intravenous drug use and high risk heterosexual sex, independent of HIV infection and disease. Program and Abstracts of the Vth Int Conf on AIDS (Montreal). Ottawa: International Development Research Center, 1989.
Scott J, Stone AH. Some observations on the diagnosis of rectal gonnorhoea in both sexes using a selective culture medium. Br J Vener Dis 1966;42(27):103-6.
Seidman SN, Rieder RO. A review of sexual behavior in the United States. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151(3):330-41.
Selik RM, Ward JW, Buehler JW. Trends in transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States, 1982- 1991. Transfusion 1993;33(11):890-3.
Selwyn PA, Alcabes P, Hartel D, Buono D, et al. Clinical manifestations and predictors of disease progression in drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1992;327(24):1697-703.
Sewankambo NK, et al. Demographic impact of HIV infection in rural Rakai District, Uganda: results of a population-based cohort study. AIDS 1994;8:1707-13.
Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W, Lang W, Charlebois E. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. N Engl J Med 1993;28(25):1847-8.
Shin YO, Hur SJ, Kim SS, Kee MK. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemiological trends among risk groups in Korea. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 041C), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, Brown AE, et al. Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions. N Engl J Med 1981;305(24):1439-44.
Sinicco A, Fora R, Sciandra M, Lucchini A, et al. Risk of developing AIDS after primary acute HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6(6):575-81.
Smiley ML, White GC, Becherer P, Macik G, et al. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to sexual partners of hemophiliacs. Am J Hematol 1988;28(1):27-32.
Smith D K, Neal JJ, Holmberg SD. Unexplained opportunistic infections and CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. An investigation of cases in the United States. N Engl J Med 1993;328(6):373-9.
Sodroski J, Goh WC, Rosen C, Campbell K, Haseltine WA. Role of the HTLV-III/LAV envelope in syncytium formation and cytopathicity. Nature 1986;322(6078):470-4.
Sonnabend J, Witkin SS, Purtilo DT. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections, and malignancies in male homosexuals. A hypothesis of etiologic factors in pathogenesis. JAMA 1983;249(17):2370-4.
Spotts JV, Shontz FC. Cocaine users: a representative case approach. New York: The Free Press, 1980.
Srugo I, Brunell PA, Chelyapov NV, Ho DD, et al. Virus burden in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children: relationship to disease status and effect of antiviral therapy. Pediatrics 1991;87(6):921-5.
Stanley SK, Kessler SW, Justement JS, Schnittman SM, et al. CD34+ bone marrow cells are infected with HIV in a subset of seropositive individuals. J Immunol 1992;149(2):689-97.
Stowring L, Haase AT, Charman HP. Serological definition of the lentivirus group of retroviruses. J Virol 1979;29(2):523-8.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Adminstration. National household survey on drug abuse: 1992, 1993.
Temin HM. Mechanisms of cell killing/cytopathic effects by nonhuman retroviruses. Rev Infect Dis 1988;10(2):399-405.
Temin HM. Is HIV unique or merely different? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989;2(1):1-9.
Terai C, Kornbluth RS, Pauza CD, Richman DD, Carson DA. Apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death in cultured T lymphoblasts acutely infected with HIV-1. J Clin Invest 1991;87(5):1710-5.
Tersmette M, de Goede RE, Al BJ, Winkel IN, et al. Differential syncytium-inducing capacity of human immunodeficiency virus isolates: frequent detection of syncytium-inducing isolates in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex. J Virol 1988;62(6):2026-32.
Tersmette M, Lange JM, de Goede RE, de Wolf F, et al. Association between biological properties of human immunodeciency virus variants and risk for AIDS and AIDS mortality. Lancet 1989a;1(8645):983-5.
Tersmette M, Gruters RA, de Wolf F, de Goede RE, et al. Evidence for a role of virulent human immunodeficiency virus variants in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: studies on sequential HIV isolates. J Virol 1989b;63(5):2118-25.
Thea DM, St. Louis ME, Atido U, Kanjinga K, et al. A prospective study of diarrhea and HIV-1 infection among 429 Zairian infants. N Engl J Med 1993;329(23):1696-702.
Thomas PA, Ralston SJ, Bernard M, Williams R, O'Donnell R. Pediatric immunodeficiency syndrome: an unusually high incidence of twinning. Pediatrics 1990;86(5):774-7.
Tindall B, Cooper DA. Primary HIV infection: host responses and intervention strategies. AIDS 1991;5(1):1-14.
Tindyebwa D, Marum L, Ndugwa C, Aceng E, et al. Mortality among children born to HIV infected mothers. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 220C), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Turner BJ, Denison M, Eppes SC, Houchens R, et al. Survival experience of 789 children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12(4):310-20.
United States Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Database, 1994.
Vahey MT, et al. Plasma HIV RNA predicts clinical outcome on AZT therapy. Xth Int Conf on AIDS, (abstract no. 253B), Aug 7-12, 1994.
Varmus H. Retroviruses. Science 1988;240(4858):1427-35.
Vella S, Giuliano M, Pezzotti P, Agresti MG, et al. Survival of zidovudine-treated patients with AIDS compared with that of contemporary untreated patients. Italian Zidovudine Evaluation Group. JAMA 1992;267(9):1232-6.
Vella S, Giuliano M, Dally LG, Agresti MG, et al. Long-term follow-up of zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV infection: results of a multicenter cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994;7(1):31-8.
Vermund SH, Hoover DR, Chen K. CD4+ counts in seronegative homosexual men. N Engl J Med 1993a;328(6):442.
Vermund SH. Rising HIV-related mortality in young Americans. JAMA 1993b;16,269(23):3034-5.
Veugelers PJ, Page KA, Tindall B, Schechter MT, et al. Determinants of HIV disease progression among homosexual men registered in the Tricontinental Seroconverter Study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;15,140(8):747-58.
Volberding PA, Lagakos SW, Koch MA, Pettinelli C, et al. Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection: a controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. N Engl J Med 1990;322(14):941-9.
Volberding PA, Lagakos SW, Grimes JM, Stein DS, et al. The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection. Prolonged evaluation of protocol 019 of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. JAMA 1994;272(6):437-42.
Volberding PS, Graham NM. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection: a review of interstudy consistencies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994;7(suppl 2):S12-22.
Wages JM Jr, Hamdallah M, Calabro MA, Fowler AK, et al. Clinical performance of a polymerase chain reaction testing algorithm for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Med Virol 1991;33(1):58-63.
Wain-Hobson S, Sonigo P, Danos O, Cole S, Alizon M. Nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, LAV. Cell 1985;40(1):9-17.
Walzer PD, Perl DP, Krogstad DG, Rawson PG, Schultz MG. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the United States. Epidemiologic, diagnostic and clinical features. Ann Intern Med 1974;80(1):83-93.
Walzer PD. Pneumocystis carinii. In: Mandell, et al, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases; 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990.
Ward JW, Bush TJ, Perkins HA, Lieb LE, et al. The natural history of transfusion-associated infections with the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1989;321(14):947.
Weber R, Ledergerber B, Opravil M, Siegenthaler W, Luthy R. Progression of HIV infection in misusers of injected drugs who stop injecting or follow a programme of maintenance treatment with methadone. BMJ 1990;301(6765):1362-5.
Wei X, et al. Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 1995;373:117-22.
Weinberg MS, Willimas CJ. Male homosexuals. London: Oxford University, 1974.
Weiss RA. How does HIV cause AIDS? Science 1993;260(5112):1273-9.
Weiss RA, Jaffe HW. Duesberg, HIV and AIDS (commentary). Nature 1990;345:659-60.
Weiss SH, Klein CW, Mayur RK, Besra J, Denny TN. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia. Lancet 1992;340:608-9.
Welles SL, et al. Prognostic capacity of plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number in ACTG 116A. Second National Conference on Human Retroviruses and Related Infections, Washington, D.C. Jan 29-Feb 2, 1995.
Weniger BG, Limpakarnjanarat K, Ungchusak K, Thanprasertsuk S, et al. The epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in Thailand. AIDS 1991;5(suppl 2):S71-85.
WHO (World Health Organization). AIDS: images of the epidemic. 1994.
WHO. Weekly epidemiological record, no. 2. Jan 13, 1995.
WHO. The current global siutation of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Jan 3, 1995b.
WHO. Surveillance, Evaluation and Forecasting Unit, Division of Technical Cooperation, Global Programme on AIDS. Personal communication. June 1, 1995c.
Williams CKO, et al. AIDS-associated cancers. In: Essex M, et al, eds. AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press, 1994.
Wofsy CB, Cohen JB, Hauer LB, Padian NS, et al. Isolation of AIDS-associated retrovirus from genital secretions of women with antibodies to the virus. Lancet 1986;8,1(8480):527-9.
Yerly S, Chamot E, Hirschel B, Perrin LH. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus provirus and circulating virus: relationship with immunologic parameters. J Infect Dis 1992;166(2):269-76.
Young KY, Nelson RP, Good RA. Discordant human immunodeficiency virus infection in dizygotic twins detected by polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990;9(6):454-6.
Zaccarelli M, Gattari P, Rezza G, Conti S, et al. Impact of HIV infection on non-AIDS mortality among Italian injecting drug users. AIDS 1994;8(3):345-50.
Zagury D, Bernard J, Leibowitch J, Safai B, et al. HTLV-III in cells cultured from semen of two patients with AIDS. Science 1984;226(4673):449-51.
Zagury D, Bernard J, Leonard R, Cheymier R, et al. Long-term cultures of HTLV-III infected T cells: a model of cytopathology of T-cell depletion in AIDS. Science 1986;231(4740):850-3.
Zakowski P, Fligiel S, Berlin GW, Johnson L. Disseminated mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in homosexual men dying of acquired immunodeficiency. JAMA 1982;248(22):2980-2.
Zhu T, Ho DD. Was HIV present in 1959? Nature 1995;374:503-4.
Prepared by: Office of Communications National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892
Public Health Service U.S. Department of Health and Human Services