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HIV/AIDS Glossary

R5-Tropic Virus

Synonym(s): M-Tropic Virus, Macrophage-Tropic Virus

A strain of HIV that enters and infects a host CD4 cell by attaching to the CCR5 coreceptor on the CD4 cell. To enter a CD4 cell, HIV must first attach to a CD4 receptor, then attach to either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor, and finally fuse its membrane with the CD4 cell membrane. HIV is usually R5-tropic (uses CCR5) during the early stages of infection, but the virus may later switch to using either only CXCR4 (X4-tropic) or both CCR5 and CXCR4 (dual-tropic). Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the CCR5 inhibitor drug class block HIV from attaching to the CCR5 coreceptor, preventing HIV entry into the CD4 cell.

Related Term(s): CCR5, CCR5 Antagonist, CD4 Receptor, CD4 T Lymphocyte, CXCR4, Dual-Tropic Virus, X4-Tropic Virus

Image(s):

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Ways in which an HIV virion can attach to a CD4 cell

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